James Carter Jr.

Oil Crisis, Hostages, and a Humanitarian

The Election of 1976

Republican- Gerald Ford
  • Popular vote- 49%
  • Electoral vote- 240
  • Fighting the memory of the Watergate scandal and Nixon

Democrat- James Earl Carter Jr.

  • Popular vote- 51%
  • Electoral vote- 297
  • 51 year old farmer
  • Governor of Georgia
  • "I'll never lie to you"- his campaign promise
  • African Americans and the South largely voted for Carter
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Humanitarian Efforts

September 1978- Camp David- Carter invited President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel to Camp David to help relive the tensions in the Middle East
  • September 17, 1978- the two countries signed an accord that was a stepping stone to peace
  • Israel- withdraw from land conquered in the 1967 war
  • Egypt- respect Israels borders
Resumed full relations with China after many years away

Panama Canal- control and ownership was given to the Panamanians by 2000

Tensions with the Soviet Union looked like they were going to heat up again

  • Arms control negotiations helped stop this

Economic and Energy Crisis

  • Prices rose at a rate of +10%
  • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)- increased the price of oil
  • US began to depend on foreign countries more and more due to the extensive amounts of oil in other countries
  • It became harder to receive a loan with interest rates going up
  • Carter blamed the dependence on oil- tried to pass a legislation for energy conservation

  • Mohammed Reza Pahlevi- shah of Iran- overthrown in January 1979
  • Muslim fundamentalists- took over, did not like western culture or the United States
  • Oil from Iran stopped going to other countries- OPEC raised the price of oil even more
  • July 15, 1979- Carter returned form another Camp David trip- blamed the nation for being to materialistic and dependent on oil

Iranian Hostage Crisis- 1979


  • June 1979- Carter and Soviet Union leader Leonid Brezhnev- sign the SALT II agreement
  • Limited the level of lethal strategic weapons in both the US and the Soviet arsenal
  • Never ratified by Senate
Hostage Crisis
  • November 4, 1979- Anti-American Muslims took the United States embassy in Iran and all of its occupants as hostages
  • Iran's demanded for the return of the Shah would was in the US for medical treatment
  • Carter tried a rescue mission but it failed
December 27, 1979
  • The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan (right next to Iran)
  • Carter stopped the export of grain and technology to the Soviet Union and called for a boycott of the coming Olympic games that were to be held in Moscow