The Enlightenment

Turning Points in History - Scientific Revolution

Life Liberty and Property

John Locke provided a rebuttal in the Two Treatises of Government that the society existed to protect the property of the people, in which he defined as a person's "Life, Liberty, and Property (or Estate)".

Separation of Powers

Charles Louis de Socondat, the Baron de Montesquieu created a piece of work called The Spirit of the Laws in 1748, in which he identified three different governments.

  1. Republics
  2. Despotism
  3. Monarchies
After looking at these three, Montesquieu saw that her government had three branches.

  1. Executive
  2. Legislative
  3. Judicial
This is where Montesquieu formed the phrase that the government operated through a Separation of Powers.

Laissez-Faire (Leh-Say Fair)

Laissez-Faire just means "To let people do what they want". In 1776, Adam Smith made the best statement with this in his work called The Wealth of Nations.

Social Contract

Jean-Jacques Rousseau created a piece of work called The Social Contract which was published in 1762. The Social Contract states that the Society agrees to be governed by the power of that contract.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Born in Germany, Bach's rise to fame was in the 1700s. He was an organist who also wrote music that mixed various styles, influencing the later composers of the Post-Enlightenment. His music was also sacred as he used music as an output for religious worship. In 1703, he was a violinist in St. Michael's Church and was granted a one month leave in 1705 to study with Dietrich Buxtehude. Bach came back three months later, quickly being criticized by the church. Two more years later, Bach left to play as an organist in Muhlhausen. In that year, Bach accepted to be the Duke of Weimar's Court Chamber Musician and Organist. By the time 1714 came around, Bach was the leader of the Orchestra. He was considered to be the best organist in Europe. But he was to compete against Louis Marchand, who WAS the best organist in Europe. And after hearing Bach practice, Louis left Germany. In 1717, after being held in Jail by the Duke of Weimar, Bach became the Chapelmaster and Director of music to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Kothen. Bach did so much more, but the main point here is that Bach was able to spread his musical ideas from Church to Church, place to place, inspiring aspiring musicians to step up and write music.
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Science

As more and more people started to question religion, things such as alchemy and astrology became obsolete and questionable. When these once sacred things were in question, more and more started doing their own experiments, starting to question the world they live in. From that, formed ideas, scientific ideas and theories and experiments which is passed from person to person, and as these theories, ideas, and experiments were tossed around, they were modified. Less and less, religion became a thing of the past and more people started to question why things worked instead of instantly thinking "God did it".
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A little note to Calculus haters.

By the way, you can thank Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz for Calculus if you hate it so much.