Reform Movements


A religious and philosophical movement that began in the late 1820's and 1830's, a protest against the general state of spiritually and the state of intellectualism.

The Biggest Movement in the Utopian Movement

Mormon Church, founded in the 1830's but Joseph smith espoused polygamy as a part of his "perfect world." Later, he was murdered along with his brother. His followers then headed out and found Utah, where they said they would stop practicing polygamy.

The Brook Farm Community

Brook Farm began in 1841 with George Ripley as the founder. It was what everyone was looking for, for individual freedom and humane relationships. They did physical labor for the thought of it being a "well-being" type deal for the mind. The thought they could create a utopian microcosm of society that would become a model and something everyone would follow.
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Edgar Allan Poe

He influenced work for cosmology and cryptography.

Washington Irving

He was more than just a fictional writer. He wrote fiction pieces, biographies, essays. He was a historian and a diplomat. He fought for author's rights against copyright.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

His work often had moral messages and deep psychological complexities. He wrote about the evil and sin of humanity. He thought that a utopian community was what life was all about.