History Essay

Ishwarjyot Singh, Abdullah Assing, Muhammad Mayat

Introduction

As of Today, Canada is viewed as one of the top ten most developed countries in the world. Canada’s population is over 35 million with the vast majority (77%) living in cities and towns. The largest cities in Canada are: Toronto (4.44 million), Montreal, Vancouver (1.89 million), Ottawa hull, and the National Capital Region (1.03 million). Because of what Canada is like now, there must have been a past. In 1963 to 1964 a debate took place for the new design for the national design of the Canadian flag. This debate was very important because at that time Canada has been existing for 96 years and still didn't have a flag to call its own. Another important historic moment for Canada was the women’s rights. The persons case was huge it gave women the right to become senators and were viewed as equal persons. At vimy ridge, it was a great turning point because it showed that canada was capable of fighting on their own.. It was also the first time they looked at themselves as independent Canadians. Finally the Quebec referendum where for the second time there was a vote to decide whether Quebec would become an independent state or stay with Canada.

Establishing a Canadian Identity

The Great Canadian flag debate took place in 1963 and 1964. This debate was important because a new design for the national flag of Canada was chosen. The flag debate had been going for a long time, it officially began on June 15, 1964 when Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson proposed his plans for a new flag in the House Of Commons. This debate was important because at that time, Canada had existed for 96 years and still did not have a flag to call its own.


The Canadian flag had been the British union jack, a symbol of Canada’s former colonial status. In 1963, Prime minister Lester B. Pearson pitched his idea for a new flag. He said “I believe that today a flag designed around the maple leaf. The debate was important because the prime minister wanted a flag to symbolize and be the real reflection of Canada. However, Canada’s new flag was generally well received by the public. Canada getting its own flag was important because it showed Canada was an independent Country. The flag is a symbol that represents all of Canada, Canada’s independence was shown. Canada getting its own flag was important because it showed Canada was independent as a country and affected Canada by showing its separation from Britain. It didn't cause Canada’s independence but was a major part in making its independence official.

Vimy Ridge

Vimy Ridge was a battle of the first world war which was fought from the 9th of April to the 12th in 1917. It was part of the opening phase of the British-led Battle of Arras. The objective of the Canadian troops was to take control of the German-held high ground along an escarpment at the northernmost end of the Arras Offensive. This would ensure that the southern flank could advance without being attacked by German enfilade fire.


This is viewed as a defining moment because, historians attach the success of the Canadian troops in capturing the ridge to a mixture of technical and tactical innovation, powerful artillery support and extensive training, as well as the failure of the German Sixth Army to properly apply the new German defensive doctrine. The battle was the first occasion when all four divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force participated in a battle together and thus became a Canadian nationalistic symbol of achievement and sacrifice The Canadian Corps captured most of the ridge during the first day of the attack. The town of Thélus fell during the second day of the attack, as did the crest of the ridge once the Canadian Corps overcame a salient of considerable German resistance. The final objective, a fortified knoll located outside the town of Givenchy-en-Gohelle, fell to the Canadian Corps on 12 April. It was the first time Canadians thought of themselves as an independent country. This later led to them signing the Treaty of Versailles as not part of Britain


The peoples Case

Women were not considered persons before 1929. Section 24 of the British North America Act said that only ‘qualified persons’ could be appointed to the Canadian Senate. Sadly, The Canadian government had consistently interpreted this phrase as meaning men only. When the law was written, it had been intended to mean men and should continue to refer only to men. The women were enraged with anger. This interpretation had clearly stated that women were not persons. Determined and ready to fight, Emily Murphy found a way. She discovered a little known provision in the Supreme Court of Canada Act that said any five people acting as a unit could petition the Supreme Court for an interpretation of any part of the constitution. So on a fine summer’s day on August 27, 1927 she rounded up four of the brightest and determined women she knew. On Emily’s veranda, the Famous 5 signed a letter petitioning the Supreme Court to look into the matter of whether the government could appoint a female senator.


The matter became known as the ‘Persons’ Case. It was debated on March 14, 1928, with the Supreme Court eventually ruling that women were not “qualified persons”. The Famous 5, however, were not daunted. At the time, there was one authority even higher than the Supreme Court of Canada: The Privy Council in England. On October 18, 1929, Lord Sankey arrived to a packed courtroom in London to read the Privy Council’s judgment. To the relief and joy of the Famous 5 and women across Canada, the Privy Council said that yes, women were indeed persons and could become Senators. The 1929 Persons Case established that women were eligible to be members of the Canadian Senate, and therefore that they had the same rights as mean as regards to being eligible for positions of political power. By extension, this meant women had achieved equality under the law in terms of fitness for political appointments, and therefore in other areas of employment.

The Canadarm

Canadarm is Canada's most famous robotic and technological achievement. It made its space debut on the Space Shuttle on November 13, 1981. The design and building of the arm, also known as the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, marked the beginning of Canada's close collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in human space flight–a sterling example of successful international cooperation in space.


The Shuttle's Canadarm wrapped up 30 years of successful operations when it was retired along with the Space Shuttle program after mission STS-135, which marked the robotic arm's 90th flight. The arm's legacy lives on, though, since it established Canada's international reputation for robotics innovation and know-how and generated the family of canadian robotics on board the International Space Station, as well as future generations to come. Its excellent performance record has inspired several generations of scientists and engineers as they develop new technologies for industry, medicine, and other applications.