Post Traumatic Stress Disorder by Courtney Langley
What is PTSD? How is it diagnosed? What are the symptoms?
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity
A total of 6 symptoms, 1 from each of the first two categories and 2 from each of the last two categories, must be present in order to diagnose an individual with PTSD.
2. Traumatic nightmares.
3. Dissociative reactions which may occur on a continuum from brief episodes to complete loss of consciousness.
4. Intense or prolonged distress after exposure to traumatic reminders.
5. Marked physiological reactivity after exposure to trauma-related stimuli.
2. Trauma-related external reminders.
Negative alterations in cognition and mood
2. Persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world.
3. Persistent distorted blame of self or others for causing the traumatic event or for resulting consequences.
4. Persistent negative trauma-related emotions.
5. Markedly diminished interest in significant activities.
6. Feeling alienated from others.
7. Constricted affect: persistent inability to experience positive emotions.
Alterations in arousal and reactivity
2. Self-destructive or reckless behavior.
4. Exaggerated startle response.
5. Problems in concentration.
6. Sleep disturbance.
Events that individuals have no control over can be considered traumatic.
Experiencing or a loved one experiencing an accident can cause PTSD symptoms.
Natural disasters can cause individuals to be traumatized by their life being turned upside down.
Who suffers from PTSD? What is the prevalence of this disorder?
Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Systems Theory
Guilt, Shame, Self-blame
When individuals experience a traumatic event, they often blame themselves for not being able to control their own lives.
Trauma and PTSD Statistics from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (2007):
- About 60% of US adults experience at least one trauma in their life.
- About 7-8% of the population will have PTSD at some point in their lives.
- About 5.2 million adults have PTSD during a given year. This is only a small portion of those who have gone through a trauma.
- 13-17% of women living in the U.S. have been the victims of completed rape
- 94% of women experienced these symptoms during the two weeks immediately following the rape
PTSD is often seen in soldiers after deployment or losing a fellow soldier in battle.
Rape and abuse victims can experience symptoms of PTSD from being controlled by another individual.
Battling Cancer with a loved one can be a traumatic event in one's life, but losing the battle can cause PTSD to develop.
How do individuals overcome PTSD? Who can help? What are some resources?
- treating trauma
- assessing trauma
- online trauma training
- teaching trauma
- researching trauma
Goff, B (2013). Understanding Trauma and Traumatic Stress. Kansas State University. Manhattan, K.S. Fall, 2013.
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2013). Deerfield, I.L. 2013.National Center for PTSD (2007). US Department of Veterans Affairs. Washington, D.C. 18 January, 2013.