Menstrual Cycle

By: Avery Wood

Definition & Symptoms

The Menstrual Cycle is a cycle in females. An egg is developed in the ovaries and is passed through Fallopian tubes to be fertilized by sperm. The Uterus starts preparing for the egg and makes it uterine wall thicker. If the egg is not fertilized then the uterine wall sheds its lining and passes the egg through a menstrual cycle. This cycle repeats itself about every 28 days until the egg becomes fertilized and grows into a baby.

Symptoms vary depending on the woman but some common ones are:

  • Acne
  • Tender Breasts
  • Fatigue
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Cramps
  • Appetite changes
  • Mood Swings
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
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4 Stages of the Menstrual Cycle

Follicle Stage- FSH is released and transported to the ovaries through the blood stream. It simulates several follicles but only one of them matures, and then forms an egg inside the follicle.

Ovulation Stage- When estrogen reaches a high level in the blood stream, FSH production is stopped. A hormonal combination causes the mature egg to release from the ovaries during ovulation.

Luteal Stage- LH causes the follicle to divide quickly. The mass of cells then puts off the pregnancy hormone which causes the thickening if the Uterine wall to continue in cause the egg is fertilized and the pregnancy could be viable.

Menstruation Stage- The pregnancy hormone production is stopped if the egg isn't fertilized causing the Uterine wall to become thin again. The unfertilized egg, layers of the endometrium, and blood is discharged through the vagina.

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Definition: abnormal absence of menstruation.

Causes: Pregnancy, Breast-Feeding, Menopause, Side effect of medications, or sign or a medical problem.


  • Breast size changes
  • Weight gain or loss
  • Ance
  • Increased hair growth
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Voice Changes
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Premenstrual Syndrome

Definition: symptoms that occur in women between ovulation and the period.

Causes: Changes in hormones during the menstrual cycle are the cause of these symptoms.


  • Pain in the Breasts
  • Muscle and Joint aches
  • Appetite changes
  • Excessive Hunger
  • Anxiety
  • Acne
  • Headache
  • Moddiness
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Definition: Painful Menstruation

Causes: Over production or under production of hormones.

Symptoms: The main symptom is pain. Sharp pains in the abdomen. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, light headedness, or general aches.

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Definition: Older Women no longer have a menstrual cycle after age 40-50.

Causes: The ovaries stop producing hormones form age 40-50.

Symptoms: Fatigue, sweating, hot flashes, insomnia, absence of menstruation.

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