Human Body System

By: Austin Eder

Respiratory System

  • Respiratory system consists of the organs that help to breathe. Respiration also known as breathing is the process which delivers oxygen from the external atmosphere to the body and removes the carbon dioxide from body and expels out.


  • Alveoli- Ventilation is the process of bringing fresh air into the alveoli and removing the stale air. It maintains the concentration gradient of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the alveoli and the blood in the capillary.
  • Oxygen Enters the blood from the lungs and carbon dioxide is taken out of the blood into the lungs. The blood transports both gases. Oxygen is then carried to the cells, and carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells.
  • Athsma is when the airways are inflamed, and may occasionally has spasm, causing wheezing and shortness of breath. Allergies, infections or pollution in the air can cause asthma attacks and symptoms. To treat athsma you can take breathing treatments ofter or carrie an inhaler in case of a attack.
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Immune System

  • The role of the immune system is a collection of structures and processes within the body. It also protect against disease or other potentially damaging diseases to the bodies. When functioning properly the immune system identifies a variety of threats including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body's own healthy tissue.


  • Pathogen-a bacteria, virus or other micro organism that can disease.
  • Immunity- the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibiotic or sensitized white blood cells.
  • Passive Immunity-The short term immunity that results from from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
  • Antigen-a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
  • Antibody-a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
  • Antibiotics are produced by microorganisms to kill or control the growth of other microorganisms by blocking specific metabolic pathways within the cell. Since bacteria are so different to human cells, antibiotics can be taken by humans to kill bacteria without harming the human cells. Viruses on the other hand are different as they do not carry out many metabolic processes themselves. Instead they rely on a human cell to carry out these processes for them.

  • HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It breaks down the immune system — our body's protection against disease. HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn't affect them.HIV symptoms may include swollen glands in the throat, armpit, or groin. Other early HIV symptoms include slight fever, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches. These symptoms may last for only a few weeks. Also today there is no cure for HIV and Aids.

Endocrine System

  • The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. The hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function.


  • Homeostasis is a characteristic of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties.
  • The control of blood sugar by insulin is another good example of a negative feedback mechanism. When blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change . In turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowering blood sugar levels. Once blood sugar levels reach homeostasis, the pancreas stops releasing insulin.
  • Diabetes is when your blood sugar is too high. Blood glucose is the main type of sugar found in your blood and your main source of energy. Glucose comes from the food you eat and is also made in your liver and muscles. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body’s cells to use for energy. Some of the symptoms of diabetes is being thirsty often, urinating often, feeling very hungry, feeling very tired, losing weight, blurry eyesight, and others..
  • Type 2 diabetes can affect people at any age and children. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle aged and older people. People who are overweight and inactive are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.Treatment for type 2 diabetes are using diabetes medicine, making healthy foods, being physically active, controlling your blood pressure, and controlling cholesterol levels.
  • Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but, type 1 diabetes can also develop in adults. In type 1 diabetes, your body no longer makes insulin or enough insulin because the body’s immune system. Treatment for type 1 diabetes are taking injections of insulin, taking medication, healthy foods being active, controlling blood pressure, controlling cholesterol levels.

Skeletal System


  • Bones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. Bones such as the skull and rib cage protects internal organs from injury. Also Bones enable body movements by acting as levers and points of attachment for muscles.
  • The most common form of ligament is the tough, fibrous tissue that connects one bone to another bone forming a joint.
  • The ligaments provide joint stability. Their primary function is to prevent movement that might damage a joint.
  • Your nerves coordinated everything. It sensed the hot object and signaled your muscles to let it go. Your nerves which consists of your brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and autonomic nerves, coordinates all movements, thoughts and sensations that you have.
  • Bone scans and bone marrow biopsies are used to diagnose cancer. Osteoporosis is a prevalent disease of the skeletal system, mostly the elderly, resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear completely.
  • Arthritis is a group of more than 100 inflammatory diseases that damage joints and their surrounding structures. Arthritis can attack joints, joint capsules, the surrounding tissue, or throughout the body. It usually affects the joints of the neck, shoulders, hands, lower back, hips, or knees.
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Muscular System

  • The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. The muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves.


  • Visceral muscle (smooth muscle) is found inside of organs like the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. Because visceral muscle is controlled by the unconscious part of the brain, it is known as involuntary muscle that cant be directly controlled by the conscious mind. The visceral muscle is a very smooth, uniform appearance when viewed under a microscope.
  • Cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. Cardiac muscle tissue cannot be controlled consciously, so it is an involuntary muscle. While hormones and signals from the brain adjust the rate of contraction, cardiac muscle stimulates itself to contract. The natural pacemaker of the heart is made of cardiac muscle tissue that stimulates other cardiac muscle cells to contract. Because of its self stimulation, cardiac muscle is considered to be auto rhythmic or intrinsically controlled.
  • Skeletal muscle is the only voluntary muscle tissue in the human body and is controlled consciously. Every physical action that a person consciously performs such as speaking, walking writing that requires skeletal muscle. The function of skeletal muscle is to contract to move parts of the body closer to the bone that the muscle is attached to. Most skeletal muscles are attached to two bones across a joint, so the muscle serves to move parts of those bones closer to each other.
  • An action potential from a motor neuron triggers the release of Ca2 ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions expose the myosin heads by binding to a blocking molecule and causing it to move. The myosin heads form a cross bridge with actin binding sites. ATP binds to the myosin heads and breaks the cross bridge. The hydrolysis of ATP causes the myosin heads to change shape and swivel. This moves them towards the next actin binding site. The movement of the myosin heads cause the actin filaments to slide over the myosin filaments, shortening the length of the sarcomere.
  • The most common symptom or sign of a muscle disorder is weakness, although muscle disorders can cause a number of symptoms, according to Schabbing. In addition to weakness, symptoms include abnormal fatigue with activity, as well as muscle spasms, cramping or twitching. Neuromuscular disorders affecting the eyes or mouth can cause drooping eyelids or double vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing or, sometimes have a difficult time breathing. Steroids and other medications can help to reduce spasms and cramping.

Nervous System

  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that are connect to the organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.


  • Central Nervous System- The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system. The CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory, and regulation systems. The CNS takes in all of the conscious and subconscious sensory information from the bodies sensory receptors to stay aware of the body’s internal and external conditions. Using this sensory information, it makes decisions about both conscious and subconscious actions to take to maintain the body’s homeostasis and ensure its survival. The CNS is also responsible for the higher functions of the nervous system such as language, creativity, expression, emotions, and personality.
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. These parts include all of the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors.
  • The cerebral hemisphere is one half of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.
  • The diencephalon is involved in several functions of the body including,

    Directing Sense Impulses Throughout the Body, Autonomic Function Control, Endocrine Function Control, Motor Function Control, Homeostasis,Hearing, Vision, Smell, and Taste, and Touch Perception.
  • The Brain stem regulates vital body functions such as cardiac and respiratory functions, and transports sensory information.
  • The Cerebellum is important for motor control, specifically coordination, precision, and timing as well as some forms of motor learning.

Reproductive System


  • Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperms from the immature germ cells in males. It takes place in seminiferous tubules present inside the testes. During spermatogenesis, a diploid spermatogonium increases its size to form a diploid primary spermatocyte.
  • The process of oogenesis creates egg cells, known as ova, and is completed throughout a woman’s lifetime. Like spermatogenesis, oogenesis involves the creation of haploid sex cells through the process of meiosis.
  • Both genders can develop sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, gonorrhea and syphilis. The common one is HIV/AIDS a disease of the immune system is not exclusively transmitted through sexual contact. Which breaks down the Immune system. Today Doctors havent found a cure for HIV/AID.