IPS Exam Study Guide

Hannah Printz

Lab Safety

Nurse Extension: 2828

Keep goggles on your face until Mr. Leeds says to take them off

Waft liquids

Put hair up and roll long sleeves while using alcohol burner

Never waft solids and/or powders

Acid must be added into water

Scientific Method

1. Identify Problem

2. Gather Information

3. Form hypothesis/theory

4. Perform experiment

5. Analyze data

6. Conclusion

Reaction in a Bag Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • The bag could have a hole in it...you would not notice the gas forming because it would escape the bag.
  • The bag could explode...this could happen if you shake the bag to much so the pressure becomes too severe for the bag to endure and it pops.
Observations of A + B + Red Liquid:

turns yellow, gets warm then cold, bag fills with a gas, solids dissolve but not completely


1.1 Heating Baking Soda Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Rubber tubing may be broken...you would not see the gas forming from the heated baking soda because it would go into the air instead of the bottle.
  • The stirring rod may be contaminated from the class before...you would not see as much of a difference between the non-heated and the heated baking sodas with the iced tea.
Extra Question:

Is the amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube more or less than the amount of baking soda being heated?

Less condensation because condensation is coming from the baking soda and you cannot have more than the original.

Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

1.2 Volume Notes

Volume = L x W x H

Unit of measurement: cm3 (cubic centimeters)

Standard unit of length: m (meter)

100 cm = 1 m

use a graduated cylinder to measure volume of liquids

always check the intervals or scale of a graduated cylinder

units of measurement: mL or cm3 (milliliters or cubic centimeters)

1 mL = 1 cm3

Single Pan Balance Notes

Check that the pan is clean and dry

Always zero the balance before each massing

  • Push all riders to 0 (left)
  • Use adjustment knob if needed
Never switch pans

Pick up balance by red bar only

1.4 Displacement of Water Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Sand sticks to side of cylinder
  • Crack in the funnel
  • Pouring water into sand
  • Read level of sand and not the water
Extra Question:

Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand? (what was the purpose?)

To show that it doesn't matter the amount of dry sand that you use, the percentage of air space is always the same. (about 40%)

Lab 1-4 Measuring Volume By Displacement

1.8 Sensitivity of Balance Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Pencil marks are on the square...this adds mass
  • Cutting groups of paper unevenly
  • Balance not zeroed
  • Could have read the balance wrong



Histogram: a bar graph that shows the number of times a value is represented for a large sampling group (only rule: if data falls on a line, you graph it in the column to the right)

Conservation of mass: in all changes, mass is exactly conserved, provided nothing is added or allowed to escape. Must be a closed system. Not true for volume.

Laws of Nature: guessed generalizations based on many experiments. Can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitation of a law

2.1 Mass of Dissolved Salt Lab

Experimental Errors: (most/all of these lead to a decrease in mass)

  • Cap not on tight enough...Water spills out
  • Cleaning the ban between Mi and Mf
  • Salt spills when pouring into bottle
  • Not shaking long enough
  • Cap not dry
  • Remove cap before Mf
  • Outside of bottle is wet

Lab 2-1 Mass of Dissolved Salt

2.4 Mass of Ice and Water Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • not wiping off condensation on outside *
  • shaking bottle
  • ice isn't fully melted
  • bottle (outside) gets wet from ice *
  • not drying bottle cap *
  • removed cap before Mf

Lab 2-4

2.5 Mass of Copper and Sulfur Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Rubber sheet isn't on tight
  • Hole in the rubber sheet
  • Shaking test tube
  • Clean pan between massinngs

2-5 Sulfer and Copper

2.6 Mass of a Gas Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Inside of cap is wet
  • Cap is not sealed quickly and tightly
  • Outside of bottle is wet during Mi
  • Water splashes when gas is released

Lab 2-6 Mass of Gas

Law of Conservation of Mass

In a closed system, mass will remain the same regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system



Characteristic Properties: properties that show differences between substances. Examples: density, boiling point, solubility, melting point

Plateau: the flat portion of a graph. Indicates no change in the dependent variable (y-axis)

Phase Diagram: a graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. Represents physical changes in the substance

Barometer: used to measure atmospheric air pressure. Contains a column of mercury and a metric scale in a sealed container

Barometric Pressure: air pressure generated by the atmosphere

Density: mass per unit volume of any substance. Unit of measure is g/cm3

3.1 Notes

Property of an object: describes the object itself

Property of a substance: identify what the object is made of

3.2 Mass and Volume Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • don't dry cylinders after taking volume
  • switched up the cylinders and took measurement twice
  • not enough water in graduated cylinder for displacement of water
  • water splashes out of graduated cylinders
Extra Question:

Will two objects that are made of the same substance and have the same volume have the same mass? Explain your reasoning (based on the lab).

Yes because all of the aluminum cylinders should have a mass around 2.700 (+ .02)

3.2 Mass and Volume Notes

  1. Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will have the same mass. (regardless of their shapes)
  2. The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles
  3. Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will NOT have the same mass
Lab 3-2 Mass and Volume

3.3 Density Notes

M/V = D

Units: g/cm3

3.5 Density of Solids Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Mis up the cubes
  • Measuring the same side of the cube/slab twice
  • Measure from the end of the ruler and not the zero mark...volume decreases...density increases
  • Measure volume of rock before mass...water will be on the rock and add mass
The Rock:

All of the rocks have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together (because it is a sedimentary rock). So different substances = different densities.

Lab 3-5 Density of Solids

3.6 Density of Liquids Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Contaminated cylinder (wet on inside)
  • Dry the cylinder after it's massed(<- empty)
  • liquid sticks to inside walls of cylinder...increase in mass...increase in density
Magnesium Sulfate = Epsom Salt

3.7 Density of a Gas Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Hand not sealed on bottle...water leaks...volume increases...density decreases
  • Water in pan during mass final...mass decreases...density decreases
  • Hole in tubing...volume decreases...density increases
  • Stopper not on tight...volume decreases...density increases
  • Too slow putting tablet in...volume decreases...density increases
  • Remove stopper before tubing...volume increases...density decreases

Gas is coming from sodium bicarbonate. The gas is carbon dioxide

Density of a Gas.WMV