Union Dissolves/North&South Faceoff

Week 10 Assignment - Chapter 12.1 and 12.2

Crittenden Compromise

To preserve the Union, Senator John J. Crittended of Kentucky had proposed the Crittenden Compromise in December 1860. The plan called for the old Missouri Compromise line to be drawn west through the remaining territories. Territories north of the line were free and territories south of the line were areas where slavery would be legal.

The immediate consequences of the fall of Fort Sumter for the Union and for the border states

The consequences for the fall of Fort Sumter were that the union lost more states to the Confederacy. These states were Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Some border states, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, were still unable to make there decision to secede or not. Lincoln had to secure border states with federal troops in order to ensure that they would stay in the Union. Slavery remained legal in the slave states that remained in the Union.

"A rich man's war and a poor man's fight"

The war was often called 'A rich man's war but a poor man's fight'. This meant that the poor were having to do the fighting for the interests of the rich. The rich men had the greatest stake in the outcome of the war, they stood to lose everything they had if slavery were ended. A poor man though stood to gain very little if they won. But the law made it possible for a man to buy his way out of military service, essentially by hiring a substitute to fight in his place. Naturally you had to be rich to do that and the person you hired was likely to be poor. Thus the rich wanted the war but the poor were doing most of the fighting, and dying.

Women and African American Men During the War

Women did a lot during the Civil War. Those that stayed home took over running the family farmsand businesses. Those that followed the troops acted as cooks, cleaned, were nurses on the battlefield, and a few even dressed up like men to fight on the battlefield. African Americans were important during the war because many fought. About 180,000 African American men served in the Union army. About 100 African Americans were commissioned officers.

Military Experience of the Soldiers During the War

Many soldiers died from deadly diseases during the war such as influenza, pneumonia, and typhoid. Some soldiers endured surgery without pain killers. Recruits from both the Union and Confederacy were enthusiastic when they enlisted, but had little military experience. They had to face shortages of food, clothing, and rifles. The worst conditions were in the prisoner of war camps in the north and south. Soldiers also suffered from extreme boredom, homesickness, and loneliness.

Reasons for Northern Democrats and Upper Class Whites to Oppose the War

Copperheads were northern democrats who sympathized with the South. They did not actively interfere with the war effort. Copperheads limited their antiwar activities to speeches and newspaper articles. Many Copperheads were arrested and held without trial.