Human body system project

Immune System Created by: Michael Marbry

Function of the Immune system

The role of the immune system is a collection of structures and processes within the body is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body's own healthy tissue.

 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.

Antibiotics are produced by microorganisms to kill or control the growth of other microorganisms by blocking specific metabolic pathways within the cell. Since bacteria are so different to human cells, antibiotics can be taken by humans to kill bacteria without harming the human cells. Viruses on the other hand are different as they do not carry out many metabolic processes themselves. Instead they rely on a host cell (a human cell) to carry out these processes for them. Therefore viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics as it is impossible to harm the virus without harming the human cells.

Define pathogen, active immunity, passive immunity, antigen, and antibody.

Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.


Active immunity - the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.


Passive immunity - the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.


Antigen - a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.


Antibody - a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.

Major Disorders

HIV/AIDS -This is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body's natural defense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV.


Symptoms: Fever, Fatigue, Swollen lymph nodes (often one of the first signs of HIV infection), Diarrhea, Weight loss, Cough, Shortness of breath.


Common: Every 9½ minutes, someone in the U.S. is infected with HIV. It is estimated that there are over 56,000 new cases of HIV in the U.S. each year. It is estimated that 1.7 million people in the U.S. have been infected with HIV since 1981 and approximately 1.1 million Americans are currently be living with the infection.


Treatment: This is the main type of treatment for HIV or AIDS. It is not a cure, but it can. stop people from becoming ill for many years. The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person’s life. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused already. The drugs are often referred to as: antiretrovirals, ARVs, anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs.


Lupus - any of various diseases or conditions marked by inflammation of the skin, especially lupus vulgaris or lupus erythematosus.


Symptoms: Extreme fatigue (tiredness), Headaches, Painful or swollen joints, Fever, Anemia (low numbers of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or low total blood volume), Swelling (edema) in feet, legs, hands, and/or around eyes.


Common: Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common form. It's sometimes called SLE, or just lupus


Treatment: Corticosteroids, including prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and hydrocortisone, Antimalarials, such as hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil®) and chloroquine, The monoclonal antibody belimumab (Benlysta®), Aspirin