Science All Systems

By:Alexandra Ransom

Respiratory System

The Respiratory system are made up of organs that help you breath, this system delivers oxygen to the body and gets riedes of carbon dioxide.

Lungs are the main organs in the system, they breaths in oxygen and breaths out carbon dioxide.

Trachea also called windpipe filters the oxygen we breath and distributes air to the bronchi.

Bronchi are two large tubes that takes air directly to the lungs.

Diaphragm is the muscle at the bottom your lungs.When you breath in your diaphragm

contracts it pulls down words, this enlarges the space your lungs are in.

Circulatory System

The Circulatory system transports materials throughout the whole body.It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to our body cells and also carryies out waste that our body cells create.

The heart pumps blood and to keep it moving through your body.

The blood carries nutrients, water, oxygen and carries waste out your body. blood is not just a liquid but is also made up of liquids, solids and small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Blood cells:

Red cells carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.

White cells fights off germs.

Platelets are the cells that help you stop bleeding.

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood in your body, the plasma carries cells and other components through your body. Plasma is made in the liver.

Blood vessels:

Arteries are the blood vessels that carrys oxygen filled blood away from the heart.

Capillaries are the blood vessels that are as thin or thinner then the hair on your head, nutrients oxygen, and waste pass in and out and through the capillary wall.

Veins carries blood to your heart.

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Skeletal System

Your Skeletal system are all the bones in the body and the tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage.

Your teeth are considered part of your skeletal system but they are not considered as bones. Your teeth are made of enamel and dentin. Enamel is the strongest substance in your body.


The main job of the skeleton is to provide support for our body. Without your skeleton your body would collapse . Your skeleton is strong but light.


Your skeleton also helps protect your internal organs and fragile body tissues. The brain, eyes, heart, lungs and spinal cord are all protected by your skeleton. Your skull protects your brain and eyes, the ribs protect your heart and lungs and your spine, protect your spinal cord.


Bones provide the structure for muscles to attach so that our bodies are able to move.Tendons are tough bands that hold/attach muscle to bone.

At birth, you have around 300 bones. As you get older, small bones join together to make bigger ones. Adults have up to about 206 bones.

Old bones are dead. But in the body, bones are alive. They have their own nerves and blood vessels, and they do many jobs, such as storing body mineral. Bones are made of a mix of hard stuff that gives them strength and living cells which help them grow and repair themselves.

A bone has an outer layer of compact bone, which is very strong and dense. Inside this is a layer of spongy bone that is flexible. In the middle of some bones is bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being made for the blood. Calcium is an important mineral that bone cells need to stay strong.

Bones are tough and usually don't braek. Bones will bend a little, but if you fall you can break a bone. There are many different types of fractures.

When a bone is broken your bone will produce lots of new cells to rebuild the bone. These cells cover both ends of the broken part of the bone and close up the break.

Bones need regular exercise to stay as strong as possible, it keeps your bones strong and healthy.

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Muscular System

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight.

The Visceral muscle is found inside of organs like the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. The weakest of all muscle tissues, visceral muscle makes organs contract to move substances through the organ.

The cardiac muscle is Found only in the heart, the cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.

Skeletal muscle is the only voluntary muscle tissue in the human body—it is controlled consciously.

The main function of the muscular tissue is movement. Muscles are the only tissue in the body that has the ability to contract and that makes the other parts of the body move.

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Nervous System

The nervous system is the control and communication system of the body. Its job is to send and receive messages. Your nervous system controls all your thoughts and movements.


The cells that make up the nervous system are called neurons. Long, stringy neurons are perfect for carrying the electrical messages that are the "language" of the nervous system.

The brain is the command center of your entire body. The brain is the body's main information center. It is made of billions of neurons. The brain helps the body respond to the information it receives from the senses. The brain also processes thoughts. When you think, neurons in your brain are working.
The brain has three main parts.

The largest is the cerebrum, which controls vision, touch, and other senses. It also handles movements you have control over.

Thinking takes place in the cerebrum. The cerebellum is another section of the brain. The cerebellum helps control balance and coordination.

Another part of the brain is called the brain stem. The brain stem is the link to the spinal cord and it also controls digestion, breathing, and heartbeat.

Spinal cord

The spinal is a tube of neurons that runs up the spine and attaches to the brain stem. Information from nerves that branch out to the rest of the body goes to the spinal cord. Some messages are processed by the spinal cord but most information is sent on to the brain.

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Immune system

The immune system is the defense against disease.The immune system attacks the disease.

The immune system is made up of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body.The blood cells that we used to fight off the invadors are the white blood cells, and leukocyte.

Leukocytes are made in the bone marrow, thymus, and spleen. The leukocytes circulate through the body between the organs and nodes vessels. In this way, the immune system works in a coordination to monitor the body for germs that might cause problems.

The phagocytes cell that chew up invading oganisms

The lymphocytes are cells that allow the body to rember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them.

Excretory System

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis in the body and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the release of the waste products.


The kidneys are bean shaped organs which are present in each of the sides of the vertebral column in the abdominal cavity. Humans have two kidneys and each kidney is supplied with blood from the renal artery. The kidneys remove the wastes such as urea from the blood, and salts and excess water are also removed from the blood.


The liver detoxifies and breaks down chemicals, poisons and other toxins that enter the body.


After bile is produced in the liver, it is stored in the gall bladder. It is then secreted within the small intestine where it helps to break down ethanol, fats and other acidic wastes including ammonia, into harmless substances.

Large intestine

The large intestine collects waste from the body. It extracts any remaining usable water and then removes solid waste. At about 10 feet long, it transports the wastes through the tubes to be released.


Skin excretes sweat through sweat glands throughout the body. This helps to remove additional wastes further more, the sweat (helped by salt) evaporates and helps to keep the body cool when it is warm.


Like sweat glands the eccrine glands allow excess water to leave the body. They help the body to maintain temperature control.

Digestive system

Digestion is the breaking down of food into forms that our bodies can use. Our bodies use food as fuel to provide energy for work, play and growth. Your digestive system is responsible for converting the food we eat into energy for our bodies to use.
Digestion begins when you put food in your mouth and begin to chew. Your teeth help to break the food apart, saliva helps to soften the food and your tongue helps to push the food into your throat when your ready to swallow.

When we swallow the food goes into a tube called the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that is connected to the stomach. The muscles that surround the esophagus help to squeeze and push the food into the stomach.

The stomach is a sack that receives the food from the esophagus. Your stomach is located just below the heart. The stomach makes digestive acids that help to break food down into a thick liquid. This thick liquid or paste is called chyme. Your stomach is a muscular organ that is able to move in order to mix the food with digestive juices. Food usually remains in the stomach for about two hours.

After leaving the stomach the food enters the small intestine. Your small intestine is a 25 foot tube that is coiled up in your abdomen. The most important part of digestion takes place in the small intestine. As the thick liquid food paste travels through your small intestine the nutrients vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fats are absorbed by millions of villi and sent into your bloodstream where the nutrients can travel to your body cells.

The body does not digest all the food that we eat. The undigested food leaves the small intestine and then enters the large intestine. The large intestine is about five feet long so it is shorter than the small intestine. The large intestine is however thicker or wider than the small intestine and that is why it is called the large intestine

The undigested food enters the large intesas a liquid paste. In the large intestine water is removed from the liquid paste turning what is left into solid waste. The solid waste then collects in the rectum at the end of the large intestine and will finally leave the body.