Animal Farm

By Geroge Orwell

Novel Generes

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Animal Fable

This is a short tale that often teaches a lesson on morals. It is often with animals or objects.

Animal Farm is an example of an animal fable because the majority of the characters are animals, and the story teaches us a lesson


This is a story, poem, or movie that can be explained to reveal a hidden meaning usually a moral, or political one.

In Animal Farm, the hidden meaning is the animals are representing the humans, who are living in the Russian Revolution. And the animism is really communism.


This is the use of humor or exaggeration to expose, make fun of, or criticize human's stupidity or vices. Usually in the concept of politics.

In Animal Farm, the way the animals are acting like humans, they are exposing the human's habits, and vices, and stupidity.

Short Synopsis of Each Chapter

Chapter 1

  • Old Major gives a speech about the hard life of animals, and is convincing them that a rebellion must come soon.
  • Old Major recalls a dream and relates it to them
  • Major teaches the animals the song The Beasts of England, a song in which will be their revolutionary anthem
  • The animals start to believe him and want to take action

Chapter 2

  • Major dies a few days later
  • They begin to prepare for the Rebellion, with the system known as animalism
  • They drive Mr. Jones and the Humans out of the farm.
  • The animals re-name the farm to Animal Farm, and they make a list of 7 commandments that are needed.

Chapter 3

  • The animals pass through a happy time in which they work together, make a good harvest, have all the food they need.
  • The animals realize that they cannot read the 7 commandments.
  • Snowball sums it all up into one line "four legs good, two legs bad"
  • It was agreed without any argument that the apples and milk were reserved for the pigs ONLY.

Chapter 4

  • News of the animal rebellion has begin to spread.
  • Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick attempted to retake animal farm by force.
  • Snowball led the animals to fight of the farmers, this became known as the Battle of the Cowshed.
  • Snowball is celebrated as Animal Hero, and the animals raised their flag up and sang "Beasts of England" a bunch of times.

Chapter 5

  • Snowball and Napoleon fight and argue over the policy, mostly about the windmill that Snowball designed.
  • Napoleon calls nine dogs to chase Snowball of the farm.
  • Napoleon cancels the planning meeting for good.
  • Squealer convinces the other animals that Snowball was a criminal
  • They end up building the windmill, and Squealer also says that Napoleon came up with the idea for the windmill, and Snowball just stole it.

Chapter 6

  • The animals work ten times harder, since they started building the windmill.
  • Napoleon announces that they will be trading with the farms close by them, which violates some of the rules passed by the animals.
  • The pigs move into the farmhouse, and is rumored that they are sleeping in the beds.
  • The 4th commandment is changed to "no animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.
  • The windmill is knocked down during a storm, but Napoleon blames it on Snowball, and requires a death sentence for him.

Chapter 7

  • Rumors are spreading that Snowball is sneaking in at night and causing trouble.
  • It is asserted that some of the animals are helping Snowball.
  • Napoleon requires a full investigation, gathers a meeting, and invites the animals to confess if they have any confections with Snowball.
  • The animals that do confess are ripped away by the dogs.
  • The song "Beasts of England" is now banned.

Chapter 8

  • The 6th commandment is changed to, "no animal shall kill another animal without cause."
  • It is whispered by the animals that Frederick is torturing the them.
  • Frederick gives Napoleon fake money for the Timber that he bargained for.
  • Frederick and a group of men destroy the windmill.

Chapter 9

  • The rations of food are reduced on the farm for everyone but the pigs.
  • Boxer gets ill from working so hard, so Napoleon makes arrangement's for Boxer to go to a hospital in town.
  • The truck that takes him belongs to a horse slaughterer.
  • Squealer convinces the animals the truck belongs to a vet, but hasn't had a paint job yet.

Chapter 10

  • Years pass by, and the animal's lives become harder and harder.
  • One day Napoleon comes from the house on two legs. The chant has somehowchanged to "four legs good, two legs better."
  • All seven commandments are erased and replaced with one single rule: All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others.
  • The pigs begin to reading newspapers, wearing clothes, and carrying whips on the farm.
  • The pigs have a meeting with some of the humans and change the farm's name which was "animal farm", back to "Manor farm."
  • The other farm animals look out the window, where the meeting is taking place, and cannot tell the difference between the pigs and the humans at all.

Characters and Who/What They Symbolize


He is a "young boar" who helps along with Squealer and Napoleon. Tries to carry out Old Major's idea on animalism. He planed the defense of the farm against the humans which proves useful when Jones and his friends try to retake the farm.

- He represents Leon Trotsky who was exiled from Russia by his former partner Stalin. Which is like how Snowball gets driven off the farm by Napoleon.


A large Berkshire boar. He becomes the leader of the farm after he drives Snowball out of the farm.

- His name is like the historical Napoleon, who was the all-powerful Emperor of the French. Like the French Napoleon, the animal Napoleon seems to believe in the idea that with power comes corruption.

Old Major

An old white boar, he calls all the animals together in the beginning. He explains what a world ruled by animals would be like. He teaches them the song "Beasts of England." And he passes away a few nights later.

- Old Major represents Karl Marx, the German philosopher, that called the workers of the world to come together against the ruling classes.


A Mare, not very intelligent, who likes ribbons in her hair, and wants the perfect, no worry life.

- She portrays humans who strive for material unimportant things than focusing on the main things in life.


The oldest and worst tempered animal on the farm. A cynical donkey who doesn't really react if it doesn't concern him.

- He represents the cynical person who doesn't get involved in politics, so no change occurs.


An enormous beast of a horse, has an immense amount of strength. He works so hard until he becomes ill.

- He portrays the common working class of people who work. And thinking by hard work, they can get on top.


Stout, motherly mare, approaching middle age. One of Boxer's closest friends. She is curious about the change in the fourth commandment, but still listens to Squealer's explanations.

- Like Boxer she is like the working class, and realizes they are getting tricked, but are too lazy to stop it.


A raven who belongs to Mr Jones.

- He represents organized religion, the pigs don't really care for him around, but he distracts the animals from their problems by preaching about this land called Sugarcandy Mountain.


A small round pig. He is known for being the smooth and easy talker. Squealer has an explanation and answer for everything.

- Squealer is like a propaganda chief/boss for the pigs.


A white goat, that can read better than all the animals in the farm, and reads the seven commandments to them.

Mr. Jones

The true owner of Manor Farm. Unable to perform the chores in the farm because of his drunkenness. Doesn't really feed the farm animals.

- Mr Jones represents Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia, before the communists took over the government.

Mr. Frederick

A neighbor of Mr. Jones, and he runs the farm Pinchfield.

- Like Hitler, Jones is disloyal. After signing an agreement with napoleon, he Animal Farm, and destroys their windmill.

Mr. Pilkington

Mr. Pilkington is a neighbor of Mr. Jones who runs the Foxwood farm. His farm is filled with woodland.

- Pilkington represents England.

Mr. Whymper

He is an attorney, he handles the meetings and bargains with the pigs, and outside world.

- He acts as a mediator between countries.


They relate as a group and have no individual names of each other.

- Symbolizes people who just follow the crowd and do what everyone else is doing.


The dogs are basically the pig's bodyguards, and do whatever they say.

-the represent Stalin's powerful police force.


Portrayed as being less smart than the other animals. Some of them lost their mother, was present in Old Major's meeting. Clover protected them so the other animals wouldn't run them over.


Song (Beasts of England)

This song is used as a propaganda as social control.


Some rituals like the poems, allowed the pigs to keep their power. Like the songs, the rituals are still symbols of propaganda. The violence of the animals is a symbol of the extreme human rights.


The Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet Union

The struggle for preeminence between Leon Trotsky and Stalin emerges in the rivalry between the pigs Snowball and Napoleon.

The Societal Tendency toward Class Stratification

It shows the tendency that once the animals get rid of the enemy, they could start to turn on themselves. Their is a wall between the physical side and the brain working side of the farm. The brain working side is obviously where the pigs intended to be. And that relates to modern class ranking.

The Danger of a Naïve Working Class

The animals mostly take the easy way out when working and listening to the pis, when they should be smart enough to think about what they are doing.

The Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of Power

The animals misunderstood Old Major's words as a result of his dying. So the animals get confused thinking that is they disobey the pigs, then they basically are saying they don't want to do the Rebellion. Which is not true of course.
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Animal Farm: Context and Background