Ebola

By: Matthew Proctor

History

In 1976, Ebola (named after the Ebola River in Zaire) first emerged in Sudan and Zaire. The first outbreak of Ebola (Ebola-Sudan) infected over 284 people, with a mortality rate of 53%. A few months later, the second Ebola virus emerged from Yambuku, Zaire, Ebola-Zaire (EBOZ). EBOZ, with the highest mortality rate of any of the Ebola viruses (88%), infected 318 people. Despite the tremendous effort of experienced and dedicated researchers, Ebola's natural reservoir was never identified. The third strain of Ebola, Ebola Reston (EBOR), was first identified in 1989 when infected monkeys were imported into Reston, Virginia, from Mindanao in the Philippines. Fortunately, the few people who were infected with EBOR (seroconverted) never developed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). The last known strain of Ebola, Ebola Cote d'Ivoire (EBO-CI) was discovered in 1994 when a female ethologist performing a necropsy on a dead chimpanzee from the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, accidentally infected herself during the necropsy.

Parts of the body Ebola effects and how it affects the body

The Ebola virus infection is systemic, meaning that it attacks every organ and tissue of the human body except the bones and skeletal muscles. Ebola HF is marked by blood clotting and hemorrhaging. Although it is not known exactly how the virus particles attack cells, it is postulated that one factor that allows them to do so is that they release proteins that dampen down the immune system response.

The Ebola virus attacks connective tissue multiplying rapidly in collagen. Collagen is the tissue that helps to keep the organs in place. The tissue is basically digested by this virus.

The virus causes small blood clots to form in the bloodstream of the patient; the blood thickens and the blood flow slows down. Blood clots get stuck into blood vessels forming red spots on the patient skin. These grow in size as the disease progress. Also, blood clots does not allow a proper blood supply to many organs such as the liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, intestines, breast tissue, testicles, etc.

Spontaneous bleeding then occurs from body orifices and gaps in the skin, such as needle puncture marks and rips that can suddenly appear. Death is caused by huge loss of blood, renal failure

Types of the ebola virus!!!!

The five known virus species are named for the region where each was originally identified: Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Taï Forest ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus.

How the disease is transmitted

Since the natural reservoir of the virus is not known, the way the virus is transmitted to the first patient is not known. However, once one person is infected, the virus can be transmitted in several ways. One way is through direct contact with the blood and/or secretions of an infected person. Thus, family members and friends are prone to get infected.

Another route for the virus transmission is within the healthcare facility. Healthcare workers (doctors, nurses) can become infected when they are in contact with needles used on patients. If appropriate protective measures are not taken (use of mask, gowns, etc.), healthcare personnel can be easily infected.

How many people are affected?

Total infected: 14,068

Laboratory proven Infections: 8,688

Deaths: 5,147

Does Ebola Affect Certain Age Groups??

No, research has found no relation to age and infection rates within the virus!!!

What About Ethnic Groups??

Ebola doesn't affect certain ethnic groups

I Can't Stress This Enough!!!!!!!!!!!!

Ebola is not a common or old virus so my lack of information is due to a lack of scientific information and knowledge of the virus.

Mortality Rate

The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Signs and symptoms typically begin abruptly within five to 10 days of infection with Ebola or Marburg virus. Early signs and symptoms include:
  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Chills
  • Weakness
  • Over time, symptoms become increasingly severe and may include:
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea (may be bloody)
  • Red eyes
  • Raised rash
  • Chest pain and cough
  • Stomach pain
  • Severe weight loss
  • Bleeding, usually from the eyes, and bruising (people near death may bleed from other orifices, such as ears, nose and rectum)
  • Internal bleeding

Diagnosis

  • Within a few days after symptoms begin
  • Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing
  • IgM ELISA
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Virus isolation
  • Later in disease course or after recovery
  • IgM and IgG antibodies
  • Retrospectively in deceased patients
  • Immunohistochemistry testing
  • PCR
  • Virus isolation

Treatment

No FDA-approved vaccine or medicine (e.g., antiviral drug) is available for Ebola.

Symptoms of Ebola and complications are treated as they appear. The following basic interventions, when used early, can significantly improve the chances of survival:

Providing intravenous fluids (IV) and balancing electrolytes (body salts).

Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure.

Treating other infections if they occur.

Is There A Cure

THERE IS NO CURE!!!!!!!!!

Prevention

Spread through bodily fluids so avoid contact with infected( hard to distinguish due to early symptoms)