Chapter 4: Civil Liberties
Karleigh Link, Kristin Gleichauf, Anusha Atique
Civil Liberties: Citizens' protection against the government from violating their rights
Commercial Speech: communication through advertisement
Cruel and unusual punishment: Forbidden by eighth amendment, undefined
Eighth Amendment: forbids cruel and unusual punishment
Establishment clause: Prohibition by First Amendment to establish a national religion
Exclusionary rule: prohibits government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial.
Fifth Amendment: prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves. "pleading the Fifth"
First Amendment: freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.
Fourteenth Amendment: Equal protection amendment
Free exercise clause: government cannot interfere with religious practices
Incorporation Doctrine: Supreme Court nationalizes the Bill of Rights in states through the Fourteenth Amendment
Libel: Reputation-damaging statements.
Plea bargaining: Pleading guilty to a lesser crime in order to avoid punishment for a harsher one
Prior restraint: government preventing the publishing of material
Probable cause: Reason for an arrest; police must have one
Right to privacy: Unstated rights stemming from liberties guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
Search warrant: Court authorization for a police search
Self-incrimination: testifying against self.
Sixth Amendment: Right to an attorney, right to a jury, right to a speedy and public trial
Symbolic Speech: political actions instead of words.
Unreasonable searches and seizures: obtaining evidence without a good reason.