Chapter 4: Civil Liberties

Karleigh Link, Kristin Gleichauf, Anusha Atique

Key Terms

Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution

Civil Liberties: Citizens' protection against the government from violating their rights

Commercial Speech: communication through advertisement

Cruel and unusual punishment: Forbidden by eighth amendment, undefined

Eighth Amendment: forbids cruel and unusual punishment

Establishment clause: Prohibition by First Amendment to establish a national religion

Exclusionary rule: prohibits government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial.

Fifth Amendment: prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves. "pleading the Fifth"

First Amendment: freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.

Fourteenth Amendment: Equal protection amendment

Free exercise clause: government cannot interfere with religious practices

Incorporation Doctrine: Supreme Court nationalizes the Bill of Rights in states through the Fourteenth Amendment

Libel: Reputation-damaging statements.

Plea bargaining: Pleading guilty to a lesser crime in order to avoid punishment for a harsher one

Prior restraint: government preventing the publishing of material

Probable cause: Reason for an arrest; police must have one

Right to privacy: Unstated rights stemming from liberties guaranteed in the Bill of Rights

Search warrant: Court authorization for a police search

Self-incrimination: testifying against self.

Sixth Amendment: Right to an attorney, right to a jury, right to a speedy and public trial

Symbolic Speech: political actions instead of words.

Unreasonable searches and seizures: obtaining evidence without a good reason.