What will Canada look like in 2035?

By Maham Khan


Canada is one of the best countries in the world. We have a stable population, a good immigrants' history, beautiful cities and lanform regions, good resources and more that i will talk about throughout this flyer. In this flyer, I stated how Canada is doing right now, problems and solutions. I also predicted how Canada will be like in 2035. Will is still be a desired destination for immigrants? Will our population be stabled? Is our FNIM people going to be happy? What's going to happen to our climate. How will it affect us. What are we going to do to find a solution. What's going to happen to our landform regions. Are we going to run out of resources? Will there be an urban sprawl? Is urban sprawl going to be a problem? What issues will our cities face? Let's predict Canada's future in 2035.

Unit 1: Changing Populations.

Will Canada be a desired destination for immigraion?

Canada is one of the best countries to settle in. It will continue to be a shelter for many immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa, as it will thrive on its great offers. Immigrants leave their home country due to these push factors:

  • War
  • Poverty
  • No job
  • Bad education
  • Religious persecution
  • Human rights violation
  • Bad economy
  • Natural disasters
  • Poor and severe living conditions
  • Bad health car and more

Sometimes people leave because they are attracted by what they view as favorable conditions in another country.

The United Nations has rated Canada as the best country to live in as it fulfills people needs and wants. Canada is an independent, developed, peaceful, a rich nation and a safe and secured country. We have a good economy and a democratic government. We don’t have wars, poverty, natural disasters and etc…Canada is famous for the good education system we have, scholarships, job opportunities, free and good medical care, lots of facilities such as, malls, community centers, grocery stores, gymnasiums, libraries and more. We have a better and a high standard lifestyle like shelter, food, clothes, cars, furniture and other luxuries. We breathe in clean air. Parents want to bring their kids here so they can go to a school that supplies them with supplies, give them good and proper education. They want them to have all the luxuries too. Also, they want their kids to grow up in a environment, a country, that will make them a good and a respectful human being. Canada has strict laws that limits illegal actions. This way there are less criminal crimes. In other countries, they have laws too, but no one actually obeys it. You see people on the streets scandalizing walls, stealing money, hitting each other, breaking traffic signals and more. We have a good government that knows how to run the country and how to control people. Furthermore, there are lots of freedom like freedom to vote, to practice your religion, to speak up for your rights and etc… This is a country where everybody’s voice is heard and treated equally with respect. All races are welcomed. Canada will definitely be a desirable destination for immigrants.

Who will Canada be attracting as immigrants?

Canada will be attracting economic immigrants, family immigrants, and refugees’ immigrants. Canadian families are having fewer kids due to high expense. They are only getting paid 55 percent maternity pay. Also, women are educated. They are all workingwomen that don’t have the time to give a child the attention they need. After the baby boomer retirement, there are more jobs available, attracting immigrants from all over the globe to replace them with the retiring, aging population. In the coming years, Canada will have an aging population. After the baby boomer retirement, Canada's birth rate decreased and the death rate is stable, which means in the next decades there will be a huge natural decrease in population. Canada will need lots of immigrants like economic immigrants, family immigrants, and refugees immigrants to maintain its position on the demographic transition model; stage 4. This will give a lot of immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa an opportunity to make a new home here to provide services for our elder population, and to join and help our work force.

Canada is looking for:

  • Economic Immigrants: This includes skilled workers and business immigrants. We need these immigrants to meet the need of our job market and our work force. We need them for our primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary industry. For the primary industry we need miners, farmers, fishers, and people who can do forestry and extract natural resources and etc... For the secondary industry, we need immigrants that can do construction work, who can make products, manufacture them, export, builders, steel workers, car manufacturer, carpenter and more. For the tertiary and quaternary industry, we need immigrants who can provide services, make services or distribute things. Business services and agriculture sectors are suffering, particularly in Manitoba and Alberta. We need immigrants to continue our import and export trades. Skilled workers need 67 points. They are required to have work experience in jobs like financial services, skilled trades, health care, information technology, and more. They can’t have a criminal record. They must be healthy and be able to speak English. Business immigrants can come here if they score only 35 points. We need business immigrants that can make a good financial contribution to Canada’s economy. They can be self-employed, investors and entrepreneurs. Self-employed need experiences as world-class athlete, cultural activities or/and farming. Entrepreneurs and investors are accepted if they will create employment opportunities

The Ontario Ministry of Education is spending $12 million over three years to help get more foreign, trained medical professionals like nurses, doctors and pharmacists into their professions. To train foreign professionals to ensure they meet Canadian standards, the Ontario Ministry Of Education is spending another $3.5 million dollars.

  • Family immigrants:
  • Allow Canadians family to reunite with their families
  • Canadian citizen or resident over 18 years old can sponsor a family worker.
  • The sponsor has to agree with helping the immigrant if he/she/they are in financial problems for 3-10 years.
  • The sponsor might have to sell his or her house or borrow money to stay obligated to his agreement.
  • Refugees Immigrants:
  • A person who is feared of being prosecuted based on religion, race, nationality, political opinion or social group
  • Natural disaster, famine or conflict can be push factors to leave from native country
  • Risk of torture, cruel treatment, risk of life or punishment if return to native country
  • Landed immigrant status is granted based on humanitarian compassion

Point System

The point system is used to determine whether you are qualified as an immigrant to come to Canada. You need 67 points to be qualified; the point system is only used for economic class immigrants.

Age: If you are 21-49 years old you get 10 points. If you are less than 21 years old or more than 49 years old you only get 8 points.

Education: You need maximum 25 points

You get 25 points if you have a doctorate and/or master’s degrees and total of 17 years of full-time study. You get 20 points if you have bachelor’s degree requiring 3 years full-time studies and total of 15 years of full-time study or Diploma, trade certificate or apprenticeship requiring 3 years full-time studies and total of 15 years of full-time study/training. You get 15 points if you have a diploma, trade certificate or apprenticeship requiring 2 years full-time studies and total of 14 years of full-time study/training. You get 10 points if you have diploma, trade certificate or apprenticeship requiring 1-year full-time studies and total of 13 years of study/training. You get 5 points if you have a high school and a total of 12 years of full-time study

Language: You need maximum 24 points.

  • High proficiency in English: 16 points
  • High proficiency in French: 8 points.
  • Moderate proficiency in English: 8 points
  • Moderate proficiency in French: 8 points
  • Basic proficiency in English: 2 points
  • Basic proficiency in French: 2 points

Work Experience: You need maximum 21 points

  • If you have one year of recent skilled work experience you get 11 points
  • If you have two years of recent skilled work experience you get 15 points
  • If you have three years of recent skilled work experience you get 17 points
  • If you have four years of recent skilled work experience you get 21 points

Arranged Employment: You get 10 points. A confirmed offer of permanent employment recognized by Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC)

Adaptability: You need a maximum of 10 points

  • A spouse who is well educated: Masters or Ph.D. - 5 points, bachelor degree or three year diploma - 4 points, one or two year post-secondary education - 3 points
  • Minimum one-year full-time authorized work in Canada - 5 points
  • Minimum two years full time post-secondary study in Canada - 5 points
  • Informal offer of employment in Canada in keeping with past experience or education - 5 points
  • Family relationship in Canada. who is a resident of Canada and is either a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident. - 5 points

-In 1990, one of the political party, The Progressive Conservatives, increased the amount of immigrants entering the country to 250,000 immigrants per year.

-97% of the Canadian population are immigrants or descendants of immigrants.

-In the past, many immigrants migrated to Ontario and British Colombia

- Immigrants from Asia choose to settle in Ontario and British Colombia or/and Quebec sometimes due to their past (ancestors) immigration history.

-Other immigrants live in Alberta and Manitoba due to the oil industry: jobs opportunities.

-Every decade, there has been an increase of 40 000 immigrants.

How will Canada's population look like?

In 2035, I think Canada will be at stage 5 on the demographic transition model. There will be very low birth rate since now there are smaller families or couples are having children later in life due to the expense or because they are busy and don’t have time to look after a child causing an aging population. An aging population will affect Canada’s future generation, business, workforce, as there will be very few people there to contribute and provide service for our elderly population; there will be dependency load. It will take Canada a long time to get back to its stabled population; doubling time. Canadian women have an average of 1.54 children each. Demographers estimated that women need to have 2.1 children per lifetime to increase the population. The death rate and population will decline as the birth rate is below death rate. The population is expected to be 40 million though. I think the Canadian economy will be depending on immigrants to help increase the population. Immigrants have already taken over the country. 97% of our population is immigrants or descendants of immigrants, like mentioned already. In the next few years, the population will expand dramatically as more skilled immigrants migrate. In 2035, I think the aboriginals' population will decrease. They are not taken proper care of (medical health care). Lots of aboriginals die. They don’t have a proper shelter, good resources like clean water, nutritious food causing health problems. Compared to the general Canadian population, aboriginals have an increase risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia by 10%. Health care in reserves are very poor and 31% of aboriginals many not be treated. Also, over the past years and years, 10 aboriginal languages has become extinct. Today, in many aboriginals tribes, English has become their first language and their tribal language is becoming their second language. As their language becomes extinct, I think aboriginals might forget their custom and traditions as well. In the past few years, Natives moved to the urban side to get education and some serious good medical care. Right now, on the demographic transition model, we are on stage 4, which is good.

What issues will our First Nations, Metis and Inuit population face?

Like I said above, the First Nations, Innuits and the Metis are dying due to lack of health problems from pollution, food, water contamination, bad shelter, climate, poverty sometimes and more. They are not being looked after. The FNIM population is decreasing. Lots of FNMI die. In 1970, there was an incident where there was mercury poisoning called “Ontario Minamata Disease” caused by Dryden Chemicals Company’s waste water that contaminated the Wabigoon-English River System, affecting the First Nations people’s food (fish) and water, causing deaths of lots of First Nations’ people. Some of them got health problems. It increased their death rate and decreased their birth rate. The FNIM have a high birth rate in general but not a high life expectancy. They have an increase risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia by 10%. Health care in reserves are very poor and 31% of aboriginals many not be treated. FNIM have the highest youth suicide rate and chronic health. Canadian aboriginal die earlier than the Canadians. Aboriginals need to get better medical care or they’re can be death cause. The Canadian federal government is looking for a solution. They are taking care of health and social services on the reserve and the Innuits. The Saint Elizabeth FNIM program are working in partnership with the government of the Northwest Territories to address cancer problems. Also, the Innuits have complained about global warming causing extinction of their food like seals, fish, and water and ice. They are launching a human rights case against the Bush administration. The Innuits said Washington is violating by refusing to cut down US carbon dioxide making up 25% of the world’s total. One of the Innuits said “ We are already bearing the brunt of climate change-without snow and ice our way of life goes. We have lived in harmony with our surroundings from millennia, but that is being taken away from us”. To read further http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2003/dec/11/weather.climatechange

Also, FNIM are hardworking people. They can be part of the Canadian services jobs if given the opportunity to get good education and a shelter in the countryside (the urban area). The Indian Act ensured that aboriginals kids get education. They go to residential schools. Some natives have already settled in the countryside. It will be difficult to move as emotional barriers being its obstacles. They will have trouble getting a job; they get low income that is not enough for them to survive on, finding a shelter, food and more.

Furthermore, like I mentioned already, over the past years, 10 aboriginal languages has become extinct. Today, in many aboriginals tribes, English has become their first language and their tribal language is becoming their second language. As their language becomes extinct, I think aboriginals might forget their custom and traditions as well. This might be a challenge for some of them.

Unit 2: Interactions In The Physical Envionment

What is climate change? What are its bad impacts? Why do we have the climate change we do?

Climate change is a shift in the global or regional climatic conditions in a nutshell when the long-term weather patterns are changed. Climate change happens when the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is enhancing the greenhouse effect. Its caused by human’s actions and activities. Global warming; a warming of the earth’s temperature that is greatly enhanced by human means. And greenhouse effect; gases that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation like carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides causes climate change. Air, water, soil, radioactive, thermal/ heat, and light pollutions are pollutions that affects climate change. Deforestation, burning of fossil fuels; when fossil fuels are burned they release greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide being the largest contributor of the gases emitted, garbage generation, transportation of food, air travel, melting glaciers are all different kinds of way we contribute to climate change. Also, population plays a big role in climate change because as population expands there more usage of energy, more pollution, we will need more natural resources, we will need more food, clothes and other goods and more land. That means there will be more transportation, more energy being used, lots of burning fossil fuels, less carbon dioxide and more. All of those things add up to global warming and greenhouse gases causing climate change. We are the problem. But we can be the solution too. Now that we know that we are the one causing and what are causing climate change we can respond to it by doing multiple things like reducing, reusing and recycling, stop polluting by walking to school, stop burning fossil fuels such as gasoline, oil and coal for energy as it is one of the main ways we add to air pollution, turn off electronics and electricity when it’s not being used, use public transportation as it reduces reliance on fossil fuels, use solar panels, use fluorescent bulbs because it last longer and uses less energy and more. We need to stop climate change or we will have a problem in the future affecting us slowly just like how we affect climate change slowly too. Right now, climate change is affecting our weather; temperatures. Down on the farms there are longer summer allowing more higher yields and crops. But, on the other hand the long, warmer summer, could cause drought and more generation of pest to develop during the warmer winters. Deforestation causes loss of habitat and species. Burning of fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions. Air travels are the fastest growing source of carbon dioxide. Rapid economy growth will play a role in the doubling of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 too. Climate change will affect our natural resources like fishing, farming; agriculture, forestry, minerals, energy, water. Global warming will cause droughts, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, rising sea levels, melting glaciers messed up temperatures and more. We can stop this. In conclusion, it is very important that we take care of our resources, nature and the environment.

Factors affecting climate

There are six factors affecting climate:

  • Latitude: the closer you are to the equator, the warmer it is. The equator recieves direct rays from sunlight.
  • Ocean Currents: currents coming from the sun are warm and the ones from the north are colder because the southern currents are closer to the equator that gets sunlight.
  • Winds & air masses: an air mass originating over an ocean will be wet and warm, whereas, an air mass originating in a continental climate will be dry and cold. The prevailing winds are Westerlies, which blows from west to east. Jet stream moves these winds.
  • Elevation: the higher above the sea level (elevation) you travel, the colder the climate gets. As air rises, it expands because there is less air pressure and so it loses heat.
  • Relief
  • Near Water: large water bodies will moderate tempertures. A continental area will be warmer because there's no body of water to cool the land. A maritime province will be cooler because the Atlantic Ocean is slower to warm up the land.

Innuitian Mountains

Location and Landscape

The Innuitian Mountains are vast, barren, unexplored regions of Canada located in the far north. They largely take up the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This land contains nothing but permafrost, large, 'pointed' mountains, and in terms of natural resources, many things humans have not explored yet. Its name is derived from Innuit, a term applied from the Inuits/Eskimos themselves. The Innuitian Mountains measure over 2,500 m (8,202 ft) in height, and 1,290 km (802 mi) in length. The highest point is Barbeau Peack at 2,616 m (8,583 ft). Consisting of pointed mountains and barren wastelands, not many people have set foot in these regions of Canada. The mountain is surrounded by the Artic ocean.

Rocks and formation

Innuitian Mountains is made up off old, hard, smooth rocks and were formed in the Mesozoic era. There are igneous, metamorphic rocks but mostly sedimentary rocks. Innuitian Mountains were formed when a continental plate was crumbled and when the North American plate moved upward creating the mountain's peaks and ridges that reach a height of 10 000ft.

When and how the Innuitian Mountains were formed

These icy watch towers in Canada's far north were formed much after the Appalachians, in a time known as the Mesozoic era between 261 to 65 million years ago. The Mesozoic era lasted approximately 180 million years and marked the breakup of Pangaea. As Pangaea began to separate, the plates started to play a huge role in shaping the world the way it is now. The North American plate first started to glide and collide westward, bumping into the Pacific plate. Over millions of years, huge masses of magma began to rise up above the surface of the North American plate. At this point, these huge masses of magma began to cool and solidify, leaving behind vast areas of granite. Later, this material was uplifted to form the coastal range mountains (opposite side of the Innuitian mountains, towards the western coast). Intense tectonic movement forced some plates to fold in, which explains how the Rocky Mountains on British Columbia's coast were formed. Getting to our main point however, the Innuitian mountains were formed in the eastern Arctic as the north American plate moved northern towards the end of the Mesozoic era creating the mountain ranges.

Which boundary was Innuitian Mountains formed from.

Innuitian Mountains were formed from convergent boundaries. When plates crashes or crunches together its called convergent boundaries.

Which glacier.

Innuitian Mountains was formed from alpine glaciers. Alpine glacier is a glacier that moves down from a high valley to low elevations under the force of gravity

Maritime or Continental?

This landform region has a maritime climate. It gets more winter than summer, influenced by ocean currents, near water, moist and air masses and relief. Due to the frozen ice, permafrost, when the ice melts it doesn’t drain. The surface remains waterlogged. Also, this landform region has this type of climate because its surrounded by the Artic ocean. The precipitation is less than 200ml. In winter, the precipitation is -40 degrees Celsius. In winter, its 0 degrees Celsius.

Type of precipitation

This landform region has a relief precipitation. Factors of this precipitation are mountains, on-shore breeze. This type of precipitation occurs when on shore breezes hits the mountain. The air is forced up. Warm moist air from the ocean is forced to rise by the mountain. As the air rises, the air pressure drops and cools. This causes water vapour to condense. A higher elevation results in cooler temperatures. Clouds forms and precipitation (rain or snow) occurs on the windward side of the mountain. There are lots of precipitations on the windward side. The leeward side has little rain. As the air moves descend, it collects moisture from the ground; evaporates. The leeward side is dry, where on the other hand, the windward side is pouring rain. The Western Cordillera has the same precipitation, too.

Factors affecting climate

In this landform region, ocean currents, wind and air masses, relief and near water are factors affecting climate.

  • Near Water: large water bodies will moderate tempertures. A continental area will be warmer because there's no body of water to cool the land. A maritime province will be cooler because the Atlantic Ocean is slower to warm up the land.
  • Ocean Currents: currents coming from the sun are warm and the ones from the north are colder because the southern currents are closer to the equator that gets sunlight
  • Winds & air masses: an air mass originating over an ocean will be wet and warm, whereas, an air mass originating in a continental climate will be dry and cold. The prevailing winds are Westerlies, which blows from west to east. Jet stream moves these winds.

This region has a tundra vegetation. Northernmost vegetation region, found in areas too cold and the frozen land/soil; permafrost for trees to grow. Bushes, grass, mosses and similiar plants dominate

Natural Resources

The Innuitian Mountains are up in the north. There is cold, harsh environment leading to barren, no vegetation or wildlife, rural areas with little to no exploitation or exposure to humans (Approximate population~ 1304 people) . Rarely any of this land has been explored because of its extreme climates. This land is so remote that it has played little to no role in the development of North America. Another reason as to why the mineral resources have not been greatly exploited is because the regions’ remote location makes development too costly when cheaper alternatives exist further south.

We rely on predictions as to what lies beneath the barren grounds of the Innuitian Mountains. The Innuitian mountains are very much like the Appalachians, except the Innuitian Mountains were formed much later, and so erosion hasn't worn down these mountains as much. We predict that there are metallic mineral resources including iron and zinc, and fossil fuel resources such as coal. It is also likely that gold, lead, nickel, copper, and diamond are possible in these areas.

Interior Plains


The Interior Plains is located in west-central Canada. The Largest cities in the Interior Plains are Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, and Regina. The Interior plains fall under the mountain and central time zones. The largest lakes in the interior plains are the Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, and Lake Winnipeg. The interior plains has flat plains, with gently rolling hills lowlands,plateaus and foothills. Shallow ponds called sloughs and large areas of marshy wetlands can also be found in this region. This region has lots of natural resources and jobs like minerals for miners, crops and agriculture for famrers, oil, coal, zinc and more. Interior Plain is really helpful for our primary idustry!

How were they formed?

Interior Plains landform region was formed when two plates moved apart from each other. This is called the divergent boundary. A divergent boundary causes two tectonic plates to move away from each other. New crust is formed when magma pushes up from the asthenosphere and the lower mantle. The asthenoshphere is the layer where plates move on, tectonic plates occur and basalt mid ocean ridges. The lower mantle causes the plates to move, where convectional current and circular cycling happens. The mantle causes the tectonic plates to separate. When plates move, volcanoes and earthquakes occurs, It creates a valley called a rift. They create the oceanic crust. This spews out magma. Magma/liquid rocks flows up to the rift. They create the oceanic crust. Magma from below enters the rift forming a new crust. This is how the oceanic crust starts to form. The oceanic crust is thin but very strong and dense. It’s formed from lava and divergent boundaries. This is how the Interior Plains were formed.

Type of rock

This landform region has sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are composed of mud, silt and sand. When a river dries up; water from the glacier, sediments are left and compressed down to create layers of rocks


This landform region is made up of continental glaciers. Continental glaceirs means glacier that exists over a large part of a continent in regions near the earth’s north or south poles. Small continental glaciers are called ice fields. Big continental glaciers are called ice sheets. The landscape of this region was formed when the high points were eroded and the low points were destroyed by erodoing materials, giving the Interior Plain a smooth field, landscape. Glaciation has left its mark on the Prairies, flattening the landscape and leaving deposites from inland seas left behind by melting glaciers.


The Grassland region is mostly prairie. On the prairie, the land is often flat. There

are also small hills, valleysand coulees.Part of the Grassland region has big hills. They are near the Rocky Mountains. The Grassland region is the warmest, driest region. Summers are very warm and dry. It can be very windy. Winters are cold. Most areas

don’t get much snow. The Grassland region has grasses, shrubs and herbs. Trees and shrubs grow mostly along rivers and in coulees.

Maritime or Continental?

Interior Plains has a maritime climate, influenced by wind and air masses, latitude, cyclonic precipitation and convectional precipitation. This landform region gets more summer than winter. The temperature is usually around 33 degrees Celsius. And, the precipitation is never more than 1000mm.


This landform region has a convectional precipitation because of the hot summer day and a cyclonic precipitation because it creates the period of rainy weather. A key factor for convectional precipitation is a hot summer day. A key factor for cyclonic precipitation is warn and front collides.

Cyclonic: When warm front and a cold front collide there is a cyclonic precipitation. Cyclonic precipitation occurs when warm air is forced up and cools. Also, when dense cold front collides with warm front. Warm front is forced up. Air condenses and cools. The rotation of the earth causes the air to circulate in a counterclockwise direction around an area of low pressure. Cold front edge means very strong thunderstorm. A cyclonic storm is a large, low-pressure system that forms when a warm air mass and a cold air mass collide Clouds form in anvil shape. Cold front edge creates the period of rainy weathers.

Convectional precipitation:

Convectional precipitation happens when the earth’s surface becomes really heated up leading to evaporation. The warm ground heats the air over it. Air rises and creates cloud. And, it rains. On a hot summer day, the earth’s surface is heated up. Air rises and pressure drops causing the air to cool and water to condense. Cool moist air from nearby moves toward the warm earth adding more moisture. This creates winds. Once clouds becomes heavy with rain, a short violent storm occurs.

Factors affecting climate

In this region, wind and air masses, and latitude are factors affecting climate.

  • Winds & air masses: an air mass originating over an ocean will be wet and warm, whereas, an air mass originating in a continental climate will be dry and cold. The prevailing winds are Westerlies, which blows from west to east. Jet stream moves these winds.
  • Latitude: the closer you are to the equator, the warmer it is. The equator recieves direct rays from sunlight.

Natural Resource:

This region is rich in oil, gas, salt, rivers; water, little trees, soil, coal, zinc, gold, shrubs, herbs and more.

Unit 3: Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

What will Canada's most important resources be?


  • About $40 billion is exported to the other countries. Softwood lumber makes up 33% of the exports followed by newsprint at 20%, wood pulp at 18%, and all other forest products at 29%.
  • Newsprint is a world leader in production of newsprint paper. Canada is the single largest producer. World production of newsprint is approximately 32 million tonnes
  • Canada exports 20% of the world's sawnwood, 18% of the pulp for paper, 8% of paper and paperboard, 5% of the industrial roundwood and 5% of the wood-based panels
  • The industry contributes significantly to Canada's surplus global balance of trade
  • It produces products that stretch from bio-energy and bio-plastic to building systems.
  • The forest industry provides over 360 000 direct jobs for Canadians.
  • Generates $9.07 billion in economic activity for the province each year.
  • Softwood lumber is 20% of Canada’s forest product exports. Softwood lumber accounts for 20% of the value of Canada’s forest product exports
  • Softwood lumber are used to build houses
  • Provides direct employment for 216,500 people in jobs that are usually highly skilled. People get well paid.
  • 350,000 people are indirectly employed in jobs like construction, engineering and transportation
  • The production contributed $19.8 billion (1.25) to Canada’s GDP in 2013
  • Canada has a forest product trade balance of $19.3 billion. Canada has the world’s largest forest product balance.
  • Contributes $71.1 billion in net trade and approximately.
  • 47% of the total forest export is from Northern bleached softwood Kraft pulp, newsprint and softwood lumber
  • Canada has the largest share of the global Northern bleached softwood kraft pulp market
  • There are three main forest industry sub sectors:
-Solid wood product manufacturing:
  • Advantage for the primary industry: softwood lumber, structural panels. Also, the secondary industry: millwork and engineered wood products.
  • Manufacturing for domestic consumption and export
  • 44% of the forest sector’s contribution to the Canadian economy. This was measured by real GDP in 2013.
-Pulp and paper product manufacturing:
  • 36% of contribution of the forest sector to the Canadian economy in 2013
  • Companies produces wide range of products like newsprint and household tissues to dissolve pulp for rayon production
-Forestry and logging:
  • This sector accounted for 20% of the forest sector’s contribution to the Canadian economy in 2013
  • Operations and harvesting of timber, including felling and hauling it to the mill
How will Canada manage these resources in a sustainable manner?
  • Emerging technologies and business processes offer new ways of generating social, economic and environmental values for Canadians from our abundant forest resource.
  • High-value bioproducts to broaden the industry’s product portfolio and maximize the value derived from wood fiber.
  • Sustainable forest management practices at every stage of production demonstrate responsible resource stewardship and respond to the expectations of environmentally responsible forest practices in today’s global marketplace.
  • Natural Resources Canada helped create FPInnovations, a national non-profit forest products research institute formed from the merger of Forintek, the Forest Engineering Research Institute (Feric), the Pulp and Paper Research Institute (Paprican) plus, the new Canadian Wood Fiber Center.
  • The Crown Forest Sustainability Act sustains forestry by protecting Ontario’s forested lands by using a:
- a comprehensive system of legislation, regulations, policies, standards and guides.

- a forest managment planning system

- a compliance program and independent forest audits to monitor progress

- public reporting on the status of all aspects of forest management

  • Sustainable yield management: knowing the amount of a resource that can be harvested without depleting the resource. This should ensure continued supply by allowing time to replace or reproduce.
  • Sustainable resources developments; defined as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
  • Clear-cutting


  • Exports of fish have a value to Canada of 4.4 billion dollars. While the imports of fish are valued at 2.0 billion dollars.
  • We export 80% of our fish.
  • Canada has one of the world's most valuable commercial fishing industries, worth more than $5 billion a year.
  • Provides more than 120,000 jobs to Canadians.
  • Mainstay of approximately 1,500 communities in rural and coastal Canada.
  • Atlantic Canada and Quebec commercial fishing landings were valued at $1.8 billion in 2011.
  • Pacific commercial fishing landings were valued at $279 million in 2011. Pacific commercial species were wild salmon, halibut, spot prawns and Dungeness crab.
  • Atlantic species were lobster, snow crab, shrimp, scallops and Greenland turbot.
  • Freshwater fish commercial landings were valued at $58 million in 2011. Freshwater commercial species were yellow pickerel, perch, whitefish, white bass and smelt.
  • Canada's aquaculture production was valued at $846 million in 2011.
  • Top species produced were salmon (Atlantic, Coho and Chinook), mussels, rainbow trout, oysters, and clams.
  • Canada's commercial fishing and aquaculture sectors provide more than 80,000 direct jobs to Canadians
  • Canada was the world's fifth largest fish and seafood exporter in 2011, with exports to more than 130 countries.
  • Canada's fish and seafood exports were valued at $4.1 billion in 2012.
  • The United States is Canada's largest seafood trade exports market being 62% of seafood trade, followed by China 11%, the European Union 8%, Japan 6% and Hong Kong 3%.
How will Canada manage these resources in a sustainable manner
  • “The Canadian Food Inspection Agency sets the policies, requirements and inspection standards for fish products, federally registered fish and seafood processing establishments, importers, fishing vessels, and equipment used for handling, transporting and storing fish. All establishments which process fish and seafood for export or inter-provincial trade must be federally registered and must develop and implement a HACCP-based Quality Management Program (QMP) plan".
  • Department of Fisheries and Oceans created a law. They said you must have a liscence to fish. Also, they limited the amount of fish that can be caught. The department plan includes important considerations for all aspects of the fishery. It outlines the biology and status of the fish stock. The total amount of fish that can be caught to keep the stock healthy and viable. The share of the total catch that can be caught by license holders or the fishing fleet. It also sets out the rules for the fishery, such as when and where the fishing season can take place and what types of gear can be used. It establishes the objectives for the fishery and the management and enforcement approaches to be employed.
  • Fishing is a renewable resource, which means it can be replenished naturally. It will grow, reproduce, replace. But, we will run out of it if people fish to many. Yes, its renewable, but it will only be renewable only if we fish at a rate lower than the time it takes it to reproduce. If we keep fishing at a faster rate, all of the fishes will be gone before they can even reproduce again. Fish stocks are being harvest faster than they can reproduce.
  • Sustainable yield management: knowing the amount of a resource that can be harvested without depleting the resource. This should ensure continued supply by allowing time to replace or reproduce.
  • Sustainable resources development; defined as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".


How is Canada connected to the rest of the world through trade & globalization?
  • Imports and Exports: In 2012, Canada’s total exports were valued at $455 billion dollars. Canada’s top three trade partners are United States 74.5%, China 4.3% and United Kingdom 4.1%. Our top three export commodities are Minerals fuels and oil 25.5%, vehicles and parts 13.4% and mechanical machinery and equipment 7.2%.

Import: product or service that is brought into a country from another country.

Export: product or service produced in one country for sale in another country.

  • North America Free Trade Agreement: This trade agreement was signed in 1994, a multilateral agreement between Mexico, Canada and the US, to increase trade and eliminate tariffs. This benefited all companies. Mexico trade increased 7x to $31 billion a year. 75.7% of Canada’s exports are to NAFTA partners. Combined as one of the world’s strongest economies.
  • Free Trade: the exchange of goods and services between nations without restrictions or barrier. Allows a nation to use its competitive advantage to increase GDP.
  • World Trade Organization:


-Increase global trade

-Stable market, fair price

-Global trading

-Consumers get things for cheaper

-promoted and secured liberation of trade 47 years.

  • Globalization: exchange of goods, services and technology across boarder. A world economy. It’s the integration of people, business and governments in international trade. This has been happening for 100 years

-Extraction: take natural resource to make products

-Production: when we use energy to make products

-Distribution: selling toxic material as fast as possible

-Consumption: buying or shopping for materials. Consumers. Selling

-Disposal: garbage, waste of people industries.

Unit 4: Liveable Communities

What is urban sprawl?

  • Urban sprawl is the encroachment of an urban center into the surrounding rural or farmland on the edge of a city.
  • Low density, single family homes spread over large areas
What issues are Canadian cities facing? What initiatives will Canadian cities take to be sustainable in 2035?

Cities have become very attractive places because they offer people not only jobs and work but also many things they can do in their spare time. You can go to museums or art exhibitions, relax in public parks, listen to music at concerts, or eat out at expensive restaurants that offer food from all over the world. Big department stores give you the pleasure of buying many things without leaving the building.

If you walk outside or go for a drive, you see libraries, schools, malls, houses, gas stations, community centers and more. Suburbs are desirable place to live in. But, within two decades, nearly 60 percent of the world's people will be urban dwellers. Urban growth is most rapid in the developing world, where cities gain an average of 5 million residents every month.


As it gets more crowded, there is lots of transportation, impacting the environment and the community. In our city, we transport products, our goods and ourselves by using cars 82%, public transit 12%, bicycle 6%, school bus, trucks, taxicab, trains, airplanes and more. We use ambulance cars, police cars, fire trucks, garbage trucks, ice cream trucks, boats and many more to help someone, to give service, for business purposes and more. There are so many modes of transportation that we no longer walk and realize how much its been affecting our environment, our mother nature. Only 6% of the city’s population walks. The same transportation that is very useful has bad impacts on the environment, such as:

  • Air pollution, land pollution, noise pollution and water pollution. This will affect our habitant, the eco system, due to the noise level caused by different kinds of transportations and engines, polluted air causing health problems, leaking oil and more. Air travel are the fastest growing source of carbon dioxide.
  • Global warming due to greenhouse gas emission, fuels, pollution. This will cause climate change. Climate change will affect our natural resources like fishing, farming; agriculture, forestry, minerals, energy and water. Global warming will cause droughts, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, rising sea levels, melting glaciers, messed up temperatures and more.
  • Commute times. The average of commute for cars is 24 minutes. And, the average of commute for transit is 44 minutes.
  • Depletion of natural resources, especially oil. This will affect the primary industry. Furthermore, secondary, tertiary and quaternary industry.
  • You need a lot of land for road transportations. This causes deforestation. Trees are important as they take in CO2 and release O2. This cleans the air by removing harmful CO2 so that people and animals can breathe. On average, a leaf absorbs about 10k of CO2 per year. Also, trees are home for lots of animals. Furthermore, we eat and take things from trees to make lots of things like paper and furniture.
How can communities improve the efficiency and environmental sustainability of their transportation systems?
  • Avoid using transportations to go to short distances. Walk or ride a bike.
  • Use public transit as it causes less pollution and greenhouse gas emission compared to fuels, greenhouse gas emission, oil and pollution one vehicle causes and the amount of things it needs for the vehicle to start moving. Also, in a public transit there can be more than ten passengers onboard. Furthermore, it reduces traffic jams.
  • Recycle natural resources used in vehicles and infrastructure, such as steel and plastic.
  • Use energy-conserving grade motor oil.
  • Usually, the husband and the wife both have a car. You can share a car. The husband can drop off the wife and pick her up on his way back.
  • Walk or ride a bike to school.
  • Electric vehicles technology can reduce transport CO2 emissions, depending on the embodied energy of the vehicle and the source of the electricity.
  • Use green public transit. There are electric trains and electric buses.
  • Biofuels have little or no impact on greenhouse emissions
  • Use trains
  • The minister of environment said that the government are working on accelerating their proccess on reducing emissions from vehicles, engines and fuels. The government will make investments on cleaning the air. They published "Federal Agenda On Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels."


Suburbs are overcrowded, which means there are lots of people, producing lots of waste. In Ontario there is approximately 500,000 tonnes of waste produced by 102 million residents each year. After the waste is collected, it gets disposed or burnt. The waste is being disposed in landfills. When wastes are decomposed, they create a gas called methane. Methane is a harmful gas. It’s a chemical compound. Once it’s released, it pollutes the air. It causes global warming leading to climate change. Also, the chemical is bad to breathe in. It can cause health problem. The suburbs won’t be the best place to live in.


  • In 1995, the GO Green Program was established to further an environmental vision and responsibility among city's employees and visitors to its facilities. Waste reduction through reducing, reusing and recycling of materials assists Ontario in reduce 50% of the waste destined to landfills. The GO Green Program among staff at the Civic Centers saw a 38% increase in the amount of paper being recycled and a 20% decrease in the amount of waste generated. They made their own recycling bins. These recycling containers have openings for garbage, glass, paper, and cans/plastics. Key factor: Reduce, reuse, recycle.
  • The Greenbelt is a 1.8 million acre stretch ofprotected land. This land extends 325 kilometers from Northumberland County, east of Toronto, all the way to the Niagara River, southwest of Toronto. This area provides Ontarians with fresh, local food, clean drinking water and many recreational activities
  • several technologies have been developed for energy generation cleaner and more economical including landfill gas capture, combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and plasma arc gasification. While older waste incineration plants emitted high levels of pollutants, recent regulatory changes and new technologies have significantly reduced this concern.
  • In the peel region, you are allowed 2 black garbage bags, 2 recycling bins and 1 composite bin weekly. This shoould help reduce the amount of garbage since now there are limits.

The Conference Board of Canada gave Canada a C grade and was ranked 15th place. A host of environmental-efficiency metrics said Canada uses more energy and water per capita! This forshadows Canada's future. We are going to run out of our resources. Canada produced 777 kilograms of garbage per citizen. Across all 17 countries studied, the average was only 578 kg produced. A country like Japan, over populated, is ranked one of the best country with only 377 kilograms per person.

-Intensive urban growth can lead to great poverty, with local governments unable to provide services for all people

-Animal populations are inhibited by toxic substances, vehicles, waste and the loss of habitat and food sources.

Canada's population needs to spread out. We need to scatter. We can't stay together in an urban sprawl. We can't decline our birth rate because we need our population to expand. We need to reduce, reuse, recycle or donate. We have to use our car only if we are travelling to a long distance.


In 2035, I think Canada will be on stage 5 on the demographic transition model. Canada will continue to be desire destination for immigrants. i think there will a small population of FNIM's people. Climate change is going to affect us slowly. Canada's most important resources in 2035 will be forestry and fishing. Canada is still going to be connected to the world by importing, exporting, NAFTA, WTO and globalization. In 2035, transportation and waste will be an issue we will need to challenge ourselves to overcome. In 2035, Canada will still be an amazing country to live. We will face our problems and solve them.