Civil War Project
End of slavery
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude expect as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to jurisdiction.
The 14th amendment was adopted in 1868, after the civil war, and addresses the equal protection and rights of former slaves. The 14th amendment limits the action of state and local officials. In addition to equal protection under the law to all citizens, the amendment also addresses what is called "due process", which prevents citizens from being illegally deprived of life, liberty, or property.
The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified by the states in 1870 and also gave Congress the power to enforce such rightsagainst governments that sought to undermine this guarantee through the enactment of appropriate legislation. Enforcementwas, however, difficult as states employed grandfather clauses and other eligibility requirements to maintain racialdiscrimination in the electoral process.