Chapter 4 Notes

Structure of a Paper


There is 3 main parts to a paper:

  • Introduction
  • Body/Middle Paragraphs
  • Concluding Paragraph


  1. The introductory paragraph introduces the subject by starting out broad and narrowing down to the point (your thesis). The thesis should be your last sentence.
  2. There are several types of introductions
  • Fact, statistic, question, startling statement, anecdote, joke, quotation, description, definition
3. Your opening statement needs to relate to your thesis, but will not take position on it.

Body/Middle Paragraphs

  1. One developed paragraph for each point you want to cover
  • In this paragraph you need a topic sentence, commentary, and concrete evidence.
2. Body paragraphs contain your arguments.

  • Arguments are the reason/facts that are used to convince your reader that your thesis/opinion is right.
  • Strongest argument should be last paragraph.


  1. The concluding paragraph should begin by restating your thesis and widens gradually back out to a final statement.
  • "Call to action"- the writer is requesting from the reader
  • connect to a wider scope/human condition