Hepatits B

Jayleen O. Camila M. Yessenia G.

What is Hepatatits B?

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus.


Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B may include:
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes

Causes Of Disease

Common ways HBV is transmitted include:

  • Sexual contact. You may become infected if you have unprotected sex with an infected partner whose blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.
  • Sharing of needles. HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing intravenous (IV) drug paraphernalia puts you at high risk of hepatitis B.
  • Accidental needle sticks. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
  • Mother to child. Pregnant women infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth. However, the newborn can be vaccinated to avoid getting infected in almost all cases. Talk to your doctor about being tested for hepatitis B if you are pregnant or want to become pregnant.


If your doctor suspects you have hepatitis B, they will examine you and likely order blood tests. Blood tests can determine if you have the virus in your system and whether it's acute or chronic. Your doctor might also remove a small sample of your liver for testing called liver biopsy to determine whether you have liver damage.


If you have acute Hepatitis B, meaning it is short-lived and will go away on its own you may not need treatment. Your doctor may recommend nutrition and fluid intake.

If you have chronic Hepatitis B:
  • Antiviral medications. Several antiviral medications — including lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera), telbivudine (Tyzeka) and entecavir (Baraclude) — can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. Talk to your doctor about which medication might be right for you.
  • Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A). This synthetic version of a substance produced by the body to fight infection is used mainly for young people with hepatitis B who don't want to undergo long-term treatment or who might want to get pregnant within a few years. It's given by injection. Side effects may include depression, difficulty breathing and chest tightness.
  • Liver transplant. If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplanted livers come from deceased donors, though a small number come from living donors who donate a portion of their livers.


The acute illness usually goes away after 2 to 3 weeks. The liver usually returns to normal within 4 to 6 months in most people.Almost all newborns and about half of children who get hepatitis B develop the chronic condition. Very few adults who get the virus develop chronic hepatitis B. About 1 in 100 people who get hepatitis B dies from the condition. There is a much higher rate of liver cancer in people who have chronic hepatitis B.


1. N.A. (July 2014). "Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. Retrieved from.

2. Fairley CK, Read TR; Read (February 2012). "Vaccination against sexually transmitted infections". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 25 (1): 66–72. PMID 22143117