Diabetes and Insulin Resistance

Sadie G., Rachel E.

TYPE 1 DIABETES

Cause:

While researchers still are not entirely sure what the exact cause of Type 1 Diabetes is, they do believe it is linked to genetics. Type 1 is developed when an individual's pancreas is unable to secrete a sufficient amount of insulin (which is a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels).


SYMPTOMS:

-frequent urination

-increased thirst

-increased hunger

-fatigue

-blurred vision

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Cell Signaling Pathways Involved:

Endocrine signaling: the hormone insulin is secreted it travels long distances though the circulatory system to target cell receptors. This is a part of the endocrine system.


Correct mechanism: pancreas is fully functioning and produces insulin, and insulin travels to target cells through the blood stream.


Incorrect mechanism: Beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed by immune cells so the pancreas cannot produce insulin. Therefore, insulin doesn't move through the circulatory system to target cells and doesn't regulate blood sugar levels.

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TYPE 2 DIABETES

Cause:

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body's cells become resistant to insulin. Why this happens is also still unknown to researchers, but they do know genetics and environmental factors, such as obesity and little physical activity play a role in the cause.


SYMPTOMS:

-frequent urination

-increased thirst

-increased hunger

-fatigue

-blurred vision

(very similar to symptoms of type 1)

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cell signaling pathways involved:

Endocrine signaling: the hormone insulin is secreted it travels long distances though the circulatory system to target cell receptors


Correct mechanism: Pancreas is fully to partially functioning and produces insulin, and insulin travels to target cells through the blood stream. Signaling inside the cell to the GLUT 4 protein is efficient and the body responds to the insulin to allow for glucose to enter the cell.


Incorrect mechanism: when insulin reaches the target cell the cell doesn't respond to the insulin. The GLUT 4 protein is not signaled to and glucose is not allowed into the cell.

Chromosome affected

Diabetes is what is known as a complex trait, which means that mutations in several genes likely contribute to the disease. One known chromosome affected in type 1 patients is the 6th.
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