Chemistry of Life

Amanda Bengera & Aysha Burgos

Water

Cohesion- Water is attracted to itself

Adhesion- Water is attracted to other substances

Surface Tension- attraction between particles that causes layers

PH Scale- is used to determine how acidic a substance is.

7 is neutral

1 is acidic

14 is basic


Macromolecules

Macromolecules are polymers. Polymers are large molecules linked together.


The types of macromolecules

-Carbohydrates (sugar)

-Proteins

-Lipids (fats)

-Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

-Carbo mean carbon, hydrates mean water.

-Can be found in most foods.

-Main source of our bodies energy.

-If they are not used up they become fat.

- For ever gram of carbohydrates is four calories of energy.

Proteins

Proteins are able to function our hair, muscles and body. There are several thousand proteins in the human body. Knowing the shape of a protein helps determine the function. The shape is also able to determine a disease. In order for a protein to become active it must twist and fold. Proteins are ,made of small building blocks.


Lipids

Lipids are hydrophobic, meaning they do not mix with water. These molecules include fat and oil. There are two types of fat, saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats have no double bonds. Unstaurated fats have at least one double bond. Fats have a lot of energy stored in their molecular bonds. The body breaks down the fat and converts it into energy.


Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids are many part of monomer or building blocks. There are three types of Nucleic Acids. The first type is DNA which is heredity. The second type is RNA which carries the instructions for making proteins. The third type is ATP which is the energy bank.


Enzymes

Enzymes are specialized proteins that help speed reactions by lowering the activation energy. They are catalysts and get things going. Enzymes have specific active sites that bind with a specific substrate. They have the same shape before and after interacting with the substrate. Are made of amino acids. The higher the temperature the faster the reaction will occur.

* NOT ALL PROTEINS ARE ENZYMES, BUT ALL ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS.