Language Arts 6th Grade

What We've Learned This Year! By: Ava Faulkinberry

Chapter 1 The Sentence

The sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought.

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The simple subject is the main word group that tells who or what the sentence is about. The predicate of a sentence of a sentence tells something about the subject.

The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate. A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined b a conjunction and that have the same verb.

A compound verb consist of two or more verbs that are joined b a conjunction and that have the same subject.

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

Chapter 1 Examples

Sentence ex.

Kennedy forgot her ID but remembered to put it on in the car.

Simple subject ex.

Addison forgot to put on his shoes and left the house.

Subject ex.

Jonny forgot to brush his teeth.

Predicate ex.

Katelyn wrote a book.

Simple Predicate or verb ex.

Mary-Esther lifted the painting carefully.

Compound Subject ex.

Bella and Simone talk a lot together.

Compound verb ex.

Mallory overslept but caught her bus anyway.

Declarative Sentence ex.

Simone lived in California. (statement)

Imperative Sentence ex.

Sit down. (command)

Interrogative Sentence ex.

How old is my mom? (question)

Exclamatory Sentence ex.

I got his autograph! (strong feeling)

Chapter 2 Parts of Speech Overview

Noun- is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. Pronoun- is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Adjective- is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Chapter 2 Examples

Noun

Clara barton was the founder of the American Red Cross.

Pronoun

I am sure he told you about their plans.

Adjective

The sky was clear, and the night was cold.

Chapter 3 Parts of Speech Overview

Verb- is a word that expresses action or state of being.

Adverb- is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Preposition- is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

Conjunction- is a word that joins words or groups of words.

Interjection- is a word that expresses emotion.

Chapter 3 Examples

Verb

We went to Boston last April.

Adverb

The lemonade was too sour

Preposition

your math book is underneath your coat, Allen.

Conjunction

Both Micheal Jordan and David Robinson planned to play in the charity softball game.

Interjection

Aha! I knew you were hiding there.

Chapter 4 The Phrase and the Clause

Phrase- is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both verb and its subject.

Prepositional phrase- includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

Adjective phrase- a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun or noun.

Adverb Phrase- a prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Clause- is a word group that contains a verb and it subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a speech.

Independent clause- expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Adjective Clause- is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

Adverb Clause- is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Simple Sentence- has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

Compound Sentence- consists of two or more independent clause, usually by a comma and a connecting word.

Complex Sentence- contains one independent clause and at least subordinate clause.

Compound-complex sentence- is a sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

Chapter 4 Examples

Phrase

Could have been looking. no subject

Prepositional Phrase

The man from Singapore was giving a speech.

Adjective Phrase

Chunks of ice fell from the skyscraper.

Adverb Phrase

We walk along the lake every Saturday.

Independent Clause

After Kevin had fed the cats, he worked on the jigsaw puzzle.

Subordinate Clause

We all enjoyed the dinner that Dad cooked for us.

Adjective Clause

A cat that has white fur.

Adverb Clause

With a shy smile, the toddler hid behind her mother.

Simple Sentence

My mother belongs to the Friends of the Library.

Compound Sentence

She likes sweets, yet she seldom buys them.

Complex Sentence

Before Chen planted his garden, he made a sketch of the layout.

Compound-Complex Sentence

I picked up the branches that had fallen during the storm, and Rosa mowed the grass.

Chapter 5 Complements

Complements- is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.

Direct Object- is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Indirect Object- is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. Ab indirect object tells to whom or for whom or what the action of the verb is done.

Subject Complements- is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.

Predicate Nominative- is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Predicate adjective- is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

Chapter 5 Examples

Complements

Sarah bought herself a new jacket.

Direct Object

My brother bought a model.

Indirect Object

I gave that problem some thought.

Subject Complement

The airport appears very busy.

Predicate Nominates

Maya Angelou is a great poet and storyteller.

Predicate Adjective

I believe that is Nigerian.

Chapter 6 Agreement

irregular- are words that refer to one person, place, thing, or idea are generally singular in number.

Plural- are words that refer more than one person, place, thing , ore idea are generally plural in number.

Verb- should agree in number with its number subject. singular subjects take singular verb

and plural subjects take plural verbs.

Subject-the number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.

The following indefinite pronouns are singular- anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody,someone, and something.

the following indefinite pronouns are plural- both, few, many, several.

Indefinite Pronouns- all, amy, more, most, none,and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.

Plural Verb- are subjects joined by and generally take a plural verb.

Singular subject- that are joined by or or nor take a singular verb.

Plural Subject- joined by or or nor take a plural verb.

When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor take a plural verb.

Subject after the Verb- is when the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.

The Contractions Don't and doesn't- doesn't is the contraction of do not. Use don't with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and you. The word doesn't is the contraction of does not. Use Doesn't with all singular subjects except the pronouns I and you.

Agreement of Pronoun- a pronoun should agree in gender with its antecedent. A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number.

Use a singular pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns- anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something

Use a plural pronouns to refer to the indefinite pronouns- both, few, many, and several.

The indefinite pronouns- all any, more, most, none, and some may be a singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.

Use a singular pronoun- to refer to two or more singular antecedent joined by or or nor.

Use a plural pronoun- to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.

Chapter 6 Examples

Singular

peach

Plural

libraries

Verb Agreement and Singular Verbs

The ocean roars in the distance.

Plural Verbs

Squirrels eat the seeds from behind the bird feeder.

Number Subject

These shades of the blue are my favorite colors.

Indefinite Pronouns Singular

One of the stars is from my home town.

Indefinite Pronouns Plural

Both overflow occasionally.

Indefinite Pronouns singular and Plural

All of the snow has melted.

Plural Verb

Red and blue are the school's colors.

Singular Subjects

A new marble statue or a fountain has been planned for the park.

Plural Subjects

either potatoes or beans are served with baked chicken.

Singular Subject and Plural Subject

Either the engineers or their boss has made this mistake.

Subjects after the Verb

Are the birds in the nest?

Don't and Doesn't

I don't have my keys.

He doesn't know you.

Pronoun

Rosa said she lost her glasses.

Pronoun Number

Please put the lawn mower away after you have finished using it.

Plural Pronoun

Both of the birds had hidden their nests well.

Subject Pronouns

Either Miguel or Randall has his painting on display.

Indefinite Pronouns

None os the cereal has lost its crunch.

Plural Pronouns

When Tyrell and Davis get home, they will be surprised.

Chapter 7 Using Verbs Correctly

Four Principal Parts of a verb- are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Regular Verb- forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Irregular Verb- forms its past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Tense- of a verb indicate the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb. Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

Chapter 7 Examples

Base Form

start

Present Participle

is starting

Past

started

Past Participle

have started

Regular Verb

washed

Irregular Verb

won

Tense

I wear

Chapter 8 Using Pronouns Correctly

Subject Form- for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.

Predicate Nominative- is that pronoun for a form subject.

Object Form- for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.

Indirect Object of a Verb- is the pronoun for a form a object.

Object Preposition- is the pronoun for a form of the object.

Chapter 8 Examples

Subject Form

I walked to school.

Predicate Nominative

the next singer is she.

Object Form

The teacher thanked me for cleaning the chalkboard.

Indirect Object od a Verb

scott handed me a note.

Object Preposition

above me

Chapter 9 Using Modifiers Correctly

Adjectives- make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific.

Adverbs- make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverb more specific.

Positive Degree- is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made.

Comparative Degree- is used when two things are being compared.

Superlative Degree- is used when three or more things are being compared.

Modifiers- good and well have different uses. Good is used to modify a noun or a pronoun, Well is to modify a verb.

Linking Verbs- use adjectives, not adverbs after.

Double Comparison- avoid using.

Double Negatives- avoid using.

Place- modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.

Chapter 9 Examples

Adjectives

That one is my favorite.

Adverbs

The car backfired loudly.

Positive Degree-

Shawn runs quickly.

Comparative Degree

Which of the two horses jumped more gracefully?

Superlative Degree

Which member of the team runs most quickly?

Modifier Good

The farmers had a good crop this year.

Modifiers Well

The day started well.

Linking Verbs

Mayor Rodriquez should feel confident.

Double Comparison

That was the actor's scariest role.

Double Negatives

Sheila did not tell anyone her idea.

Place

the singer from Brazil face a radio interview for her fans.