Killing Them Softly
An in-depth look into Physician-Assisted Suicide
World Views On Evidence Based Nursing
through my research I found one man named Dr. Kivorkian who was a pioneer in the movement to push the legislation of PSA in America through Practical application of his methods. Because his methods were controversial at the time they caused a media frenzy perhaps intentionally promoting his ideas but ultimately sending him to prison for his acts."A Michigan jury last month found Dr Jack Kevorkian guilty of second degree murder in the death of Thomas Youk, a 52 year old resident of Detroit who had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dr Kevorkian made a videotape of himself injecting Mr Youk, who was paralysed, with lethal chemicals last September. The tape was broadcast in November by the CBS News programme 60 Minutes." (Charatan)
"Over the last 45 years suicide have rates increased by 60% worldwide" ("Countries with the Most Suicides in the World.") with the rates of suicides climbing the following states / countries have opened their doors for legislation that provides access to PSA
- Switzerland - 1940
- Oregon (U.S.) - 1994
- Colombia - 1997
- The Netherlands - 2002
- Belgium - 2002
- Washington (U.S.) - 2008
- Luxembourg - 2009
- Montana (U.S.) - 2009 (court ruling only)
- England & Wales - 2010 (prosecution policy statement)
- Vermont (U.S.) - 2014
- New Mexico (U.S.) - 2015 court ruling under appeal)
- Quebec (Can.) - 2015
- California (U.S.) - 2015
- Canada - 2016 (details pending) ("Assisted Suicide Laws Around the World")
though kivorkian was a doctor other professionals in the field tend to not share the same view as him here is a survey suggests that the majority of danish geriatricians are opposed to PSA " The response rate was 46% (120/261). A total of 55.8% (67/120) disagreed that EU is ethically justifiable, whereas 22.5% (27/120) found that EU is justifiable. Furthermore, 13.3% (16/120) agreed that EU should be offered as an alternative to palliative treatment, 73.4% (88/120) disagreed. A total of 64.2% (67/120) disagreed that PAS is ethically justifiable, whereas 19.2% (23/120) found that PAS is justifiable. In all, 15% (18/120) agreed that PAS should be offered as an alternative to palliative treatment, whereas 76.6% (92/120) disagreed. The impact of legalisation of EU/PAS on the relationship between physician and patient was believed to be negative by 62.2% (74/119), positive by 12.6% (15/119) and without implications by 25.2% (30/119). Younger physicians tended to be more positive towards EU/PAS." (Ilvemark)
A mail in questionnaire of Michigan residents and physicians Asked their opinions on legalizing PSA or banning.
"Respondents were asked whether the Michigan legislature should ban all physician-assisted suicide or legalize it by enacting Plan A (in the 1994 surveys) or Plan B (in the 1995 survey). Table 2 shows that 56 percent of physicians and 66 percent of the public thought the legislature should probably or definitely enact the plan and that 37 percent of physicians and 26 percent of the public thought the legislature should probably or definitely ban all physician-assisted suicide; 8 percent in each group were uncertain" (Jerald G)
The same Michigan mail in questionnaire this time asking physicians whether they would assist in administering the lethal dose to the patient.
"Physicians were asked whether they themselves might be willing to participate in physician-assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia if the practices were legalized. Fifty-two percent said they would not; 13 percent said they might participate only in assisted suicide; 22 percent said they might participate in both practices; 10 percent were uncertain; and 2 percent preferred not to answer. In the 1995 survey, physicians who said they would not participate were asked, “Even though you would not participate, would you be willing to refer the patient to such services?” Of the 186 physicians who would not participate in either practice, 43 percent said they would refer patients; 38 percent said they would not; and 19 percent were uncertain."(Jerald G)
Fig 1.1 shows us the rising rate of suicides in the us compared to other causes of death
Fig 1.2 is a pie chart between us and Canada showing the different ways the suicide was committed without the use of a doctor
Fig 1.3 explains the rate of suicide by state per 100,000 persons using a color code
CDC data by @ddiamond
US Center For Disease control WISQUARS database
Canada: centre for suicide prevention (years 2000 -2003)
source@fair 2007 en.fairmormon.org
Charatan, Fred. "Dr Kevorkian Found Guilty of Second Degree Murder."BMJ : British Medical Journal. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2016.
"Countries with the Most Suicides in the World." WorldAtlas. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2016.
Jerald G. Bachman, Ph.D., Kirsten H. Alcser, Ph.D., David J. Doukas, M.D., Richard L. Lichtenstein, Ph.D., Amy D. Corning, M.A., and Howard Brody, M.D., Ph.D.
N Engl J Med 1996; 334:303-309February 1, 1996
Ilvemark, Johan, Bård Dahle, and Lars-Erik Matzen. "Questionnaire-Based Survey Suggests That The Majority Of Danish Geriatricians Are Against Euthanasia." Danish Medical Journal 63.2 (2016): MEDLINE.
Varelius, Jukka. "On the Moral Acceptability of Physician-Assisted Dying for Non-Autonomous Psychiatric Patients." Bioethics 30.4 (2016): 227+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2016.