Truss: A truss bridge is a beam bridge with trusses underneath for extra support. Trusses distribute the weight around the bridge.
Beam: A beam bridge is a bridge with a pier or tower at each end. A beam bridge isn't as strong as a truss bridge though.
Arch: A arch bridge is a bridge that is made by columns joined by arches. Arch bridges a very strong and they were used by Ancient Romans.
Suspension: A suspension bridge is a bridge with towers and long metal cables attached the towers to suspend the road in place.
Cantilever: A cantilever bridge is a bridge with piers at each end and beams connecting them.