To what extent should contemporary society respond to the legacies of historical globalization?
Trade (The Silk Road)
Trade is an exchange of goods, services, and ideas. Trade brought people together from all over Asia and Europe to exchange goods. This specific network of trade is called The Silk Road. The Silk Road is the earliest example of international trade. It essentially made trading easier for everyone.
The Printing Press
This is a prime example of an idea that was passed along because of trading and the Silk Road. The Printing Press allowed books to be created more quickly and cheaper. The creation of this influenced the continuation of spreading ideas throughout the world.
Exploration and Trade
The idea of exploration expanded and created more opportunities to advance the way you travel such as ships. The advancement of ships allowed for greater exploration of other countries. Trade and exploration also allowed for ideas and technologies to be spread out.
Trade motivated the idea of imperialism because of the policy of extending a country's power by acquiring new territories and establishing control over the land and its people. Europeans believed these colonies would provide a great amount of resources that would benefit the home country.
The Indian Act is a controversial legacy of imperialism in Canada. The Act ensures that First Nations peoples do not receive equal treatment. It ensures that the government has the say in what is best for the First Nations.
Mercantilism stemmed from trading. Mercantilism is the policy that strictly controls trade. Resources are extracted from the colony and then shipped back to the home country. The products were manufactured or finished and then sent back to the colony to be sold.
The American Revolution
As a result of dissatisfaction towards Britain and the policy of mercantilism, The American Revolution was formed. Colonists rebelled and fought against Britain which led to the creation of the United States, which was a separate country and not under Britain control.
Because of the result of mercantilism, people started to believe that the government should not be allowed to interfere with the market place. People began to take a stand and become more individual.
Capitalism is the exchange of goods and services dictated by the laws of supply and demand, as well as the laws of competition. The decline of mercantilism sparked capitalism as people started to believe governments should not interfere with the market place.
As a result of trade and advanced technologies, people began migrating to different places.
When globalization started happening, Europeans began migrating to other countries. They brought their diseases along with them. Indigenous communities didn't have the immunity to be able to fight the diseases off and as a result, many people died. It did a significant amount of damage to the population.
The Grand Exchange
A year after Christopher Columbus's voyage to the Americas, he returned back there. Aboard his ships were seeds, fruit trees, and livestock. Without him knowing, these items would eventually start a revolution that would change the diet of the world forever.
Ethnocentrism is a way of thinking that only focuses on one's own race and culture. People who are ethnocentric believe that their worldview is the best and only worldview.
A form of ethnocentrism but the focus is around European worldview. It is the focus of European ethnic, national, religious and linguistic criteria to judge people and their cultures.
Imperialism In India
In 1600, Queen Elizabeth 1 granted the British East India Company (BEIC) a monopoly on trading in India and Asia. This stated that Britain was the only country that could trade with India and Asia. The BEIC formed alliances with Indian rulers to protect their monopoly.
The British Raj (1858-1947)
Concern was sparked in Britain and India as a result of a corruption within the BEIC (exploitation of workers). Because of this, in 1858 the British government took over direct rule of India. This period is known as the British Raj.
Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)
European consumers began demanding more goods. People began to meet this demand by inventing advanced machines. These new machines were large, expensive, and required many workers to operate them. Factories were then built to house and operate them. As a result, this new way of working (factories) sparked the Industrial Revolution.
De-industrialization In India
The industrial revolution resulted in too much goods in Britain (surplus). Britain began looking for other markets to sell them. Laws were then created in the colony that prevented the colony from creating and selling goods. This caused loss of Industry in India, also known as de-industrialization in India.
He led India to independence in 1947. He used a strategy of peaceful non-cooperation. He believed that every Indian should be self-sufficient.
The Scramble For Africa
African Slave Trade
In the 1400's, Europeans found that slaves from Africa could be bought. African rulers would sell these prisoners in return for cloth, guns, and iron. This sparked the Europeans great interest in Africa.
Imperialism In Africa
As a result of new ideas and technologies, there was a rush to claim land in Africa by European countries. Almost all of Africa became under power of European imperialists.
King Leopold II sparked the scramble for Africa by claiming all land that was by the Congo river. He ruled the land and while doing so he provided brutal punishments (which include getting hands and ears chopped off by machetes) and forced people to give up their land. Many were starved or worked to death.
The Berlin Conference
King Leopold's rapid claim of the Congo resulted in the Berlin Conference. The Berlin Conference was when Africa was divided up and control was given to these area by European countries. It was held to define boundary lines and resolve tensions. African people were not included.
Colonial Rule In Africa
After WWII, independence movements became widespread across the continent. European nations were forced to choose between fighting an expensive war or giving up their colonies. Many chose to grant independence. Colonial rule brought railroads and increased education into Africa. It also brought African communities into contact with one another.
Genocide In Rwanda
Prior to colonization, Rwanda had two primary ethnic groups - Hutus and Tutsis. Hutus were the majority while Tutsis were minority. The two groups co-existed peacefully for centuries.
German Colonial Rule In Rwanda
As a result of the Scramble for Africa, Germany took over control of Rwanda. German colonial officials favored the Tutsi's and gave them key positions in government. Hutu's began to resent Tutsi's because of this.
Belgian Colonial Rule In Rwanda
After WWI, Germany was forced to give up its claim on Rwanda. As a result, Belgium gained control. Belgian officials continued to favor the Tutsi's which increased the ethnic divisions in Rwanda. Eventually a political divide was created.
Independence In Rwanda
In the 1950's, African colonies began to gain momentum with independence movements. Hutu's then seized power of the government and stripped Tutsi's of their land. In 1962, Rwanda fully gained independence and continued to be controlled by Hutu's. The Hutu's strongly encouraged Tutsi resistance.
Rwandan Patriotic Front, which was created by the Tutsis, began invading the country. They were fighting to gain Tutsi involvement in the government. 3 years of fighting went by but the Hutu still opposed any Tutsi involvement in the government.
What initially sparked the genocide was when the Rwandan President's plane got shot down by what is said to be the Tutsi's. The Hutu's then ordered for everyone of the Tutsis to be killed. The genocide began and by the end of it, up to 1 million lives were ended. The majority of the killings occurred in 100 days. Most of the killings were done my hand (machetes, clubs)
Response of the International Community
The UN force that was in Rwanda at the time claimed they were under strict orders to be there as peacekeepers and not peacemakers. This means they were unable to defend and shoot their weapon unless their own lives were in danger. Other countries knew what was going on but none of them even hesitated to help and stop the genocide.
Gacaca Courts were established to try low level officials and encourage reconciliation. Purpose was to speed up the process of bringing people to justice who had participated in the genocide.
People from all over the world have migrated to Canada. This caused diversity. At first, not all immigrants were welcome.
In 1971, the Canadian government introduced the multiculturalism policy. It was meant to embrace cultural pluralism. Multiculturalism caused some controversy because some didn't like the idea of having "hyphenated" people here.
No treaties were signed with First Peoples from northern Quebec, Yukon, NWT, or BC. Even when treaties were signed, many First Peoples argued that the government didn't keep its promise.
Many British started to migrate to Quebec so the Quebecois worried that they were going to get assimilated. To resist, Quebecois were encouraged to support Catholicism. Franco-phones name coined as a way of maintaining their own language and culture. Quebec entered a period of intense social, political, and economic change. This lead to the formation of the Parti Quebecois, a political party.