Cellular Respiration/Photosynthesis

By: Barbara Landeros

Celluar Respiration: Energy for life

What is energy?

These are the different types of energy:


  • Light
  • Heat
  • Potential
  • Chemical
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Where does cellular energy come from?

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What is something that cellular respiration does?

Cellular respiration uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP.
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How is ATP important?

ATP is used as cellular energy currency.

Energy is released when ATP is converted into ADP.

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ATP Synthesis

The Reactions of Cellular Respiration

All living things require energy from food.

The primary energy molecule is glucose.

The Process of Cellular Respiration converts the energy in glucose into ATP for use by the cell.

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The Reactions of Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration breaks down glucose gradually.

  • All at once=energy wasted as heat
  • Occurs in several steps

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The glucose splitting reaction.

Glycolysis

Occurs in the cytoplasm (many enzymes envolved)

End product is pyruvate.

  • Glucose is oxidized to pyruvate.
  • ADP and NADH are generated.

2 major phases:

  • Energy investment: 2 ATP
  • Energy payoff: 4 ATP and 2 NADH

Intermediate Reactions

Pyruvate converted to Acetyl CoA (enters the Krebs Cycle)

Co2 is released

NAD+ is reduced to NADH

The Krebs Cycle

Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion.

Acetyl CoA combines with Oxaloacetate to produce Citrate.

The Krebs Cycle is also called the Citric Acid Cycle.

A series of Oxidation and reductio reactions generate 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 per pyruvate.

CO2 is released as a by-product.

Oxaloacetate is regenerated to begin the cycle again.

The Electron Transport System

Series of electron carriers embedded in cristae.

NADH and FADH2 are oxidized and pass electrons to carriers.

As electrons move down ETS, energy is released to pump H+

from matrix to inter membrane space. A concentration gradient is established.

The electrons combine with O2 to produce water.

H+ diffuse through ATP synthetase, producing ATP.

Process is called oxidative, phosphorylation.

Produces 32-34 ATP.

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Photosynthesis

What is photosynthesis?

  • Takes place in plant's leaves
  • Series of reactions in plant cells
  • Conversion of light energy
  • Provides chemical energy
  • Base of almost all food chains

Overal Reaction

  • CO2+ H2O---->Sugar+O2
  • Chlorophyll and sunlight must be present
  • Takes place in a series of 2 reactions
  1. Light Reaction= First
  2. Calvin Cycle= Second

Light Reaction

  • Depend upon presence of sunlight
  • Takes place in chloroplasts
  • Transfers electrons in four reactions
  • Overall reaction:

H2O------> O2+ATP+NADPH

Light Reaction (CONTINUED)

Produces…

  • Oxygen
  • Chemical energy to fuel Calvin Cycle

ATP

NADPH

Calvin Cycle

  • Takes place in chloroplasts
  • Formerly "Dark Reaction"
  • Requires products of light reaction
  • Produces usable energy in series of reactions

Sugar

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Review of Photosynthesis

  • Takes place in plant's leaves
  • Happens chloroplasts in plant cell
  • Photosynthesis converts photons to sugar

Light reaction

Dark reaction

Differences and Similarities Between Cell Respiration & Photosynthesis

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