Geography and Navigation
By Alexis W
This was another subject of study for Muslim scholars. Muslim geographers examined plants and animals in different regions they divided the world into climate zones. Most people in medieval times thought the earth was round Muslim scientists calculated the Earth's circumference within nine miles of it's correct value.
Maps and Books of Muslim trade routes
Some Muslims studied geography simply out of curiosity. Although Muslims created extremely accurate maps A scholar in Muslim Spain produced a world atlas with dozens of maps of lands in Europe, Africa, and Asia. A work called The Book of Roads and Provinces provided maps and descriptions of the Main Muslim trade routes. The Book of Countries listed useful facts about the lands under Muslim rule From this Book, travelers could get information such as a regions physical features and water sources.
Travelers were another source of knowledge some travelers wrote guidebooks to help pilgrims make the journey to Makkah. Others explored and traveled foreign lands, like China and Scandinavia. One traveler wrote a 30 volume encyclopedia about the places he had scene. Muslim scientists adapted and perfected the compass and the astrolabe. Compasses allowed people to identify the direction in which they were traveling. The astrolabe was invented by the Greeks. With this instrument, sailors at sea could use the position of objects in the sky to pinpoint their location.
Due to these inventions mankind has learned many new ways to make maps and different types of navigation even throughout transportation even it was by plane, car, etc. If it wasn't for these books and navigational instruments people would never understand where to go throughout the world even where they are now.