Islamic Empires

The Ottomans

Who: Ottoman , began as a group of people from Turkey. Leader was Osman known in the west by Ottoman and to his followers by Ottomans

What: Ottoman Empire spread to most of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean sea

Where: Eygpt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Costantinople, and coastal North Africa. The Nomadic Turks also conquered Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

When: July 27 , 1299

Why did the Ottoman Empire decline: Suleyman killed his only able son and exiled another. The only son left to inherit the throne was incompetent.


Suleyman the lawgiver


  • He was a great leader because he expanded the empire to its greatest size, by threatening to invade Europe. He ruled fairly letting all religions practice and established strong leaders.
  • Accomplishments:
  1. Limited taxes
  2. Created a code of law for criminal and civil actions



"Perhaps it is belief more than truth that helps us survive" - Suleyman


(The bottom picture Is Suleyman and the second picture is the symbol for the ottomans empire)

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The Safavid Empire

Who: Shi'ite Muslim Dynasty

What: Strong military lead by Isma'il a 12 year old king. Isma'il was a tyrant and killed anyone that did not convert to Shi'ite.

Where: Persia

When: 16th and 18th centuries

Why did they decline the Safavid empire: Shah Abbas made the same mistake as Suleyman and killed or blinded his most able sons leaving his incompetent grandson to succeed Abbas.


Cultural Blending - the mix of one or more cultures

Causes:



  1. Migration
  2. Pursuit of religious freedom or conversion
  3. Trade
  4. Conquest


Results:


Language- Sometimes the written characters of one language are used in another, as in the case of written Chinese characters used i the Japanese language. In the Safavid Empire, the language spoken was Persian. But after the area converted to Islam, a significant number of Arabic words appeared in the Persian language.


Religion and Ethical Systems- Buddhism spread throughout Asia. Yet the Buddhism practiced by Tibetans is different from Japanese Zen Buddhism.


Styles of Goverment- The concept of a democratic goverment spread to many areas of the globe. Although the basic principles are similar, it is not practiced exactly the same way in each country.


Racial or Ethnic Blending- One example is the mestizo, people of mixed European and Indian ancestry who live in Mexico.


Arts and Architecture- Cultural styles may be incorporated or adapted into art or architecture. For examples, Chinese artistic elements are found in Safavid empire tiles and carpets as well as in European paintings


Examples of cultural blending:


Location: Mexico- A.D. 1500

Interacting cultures: Spanish and Aztec

Reason for interaction: Conquest

Some results of interaction: Mestizo culture, Mexican Catholicism



Location: United States-A.D. 1900


Interacting cultures: European, Asian, Carribbean

Reason for interaction: Migration, religious freedom

Some results of interaction: Cultrual diversity

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(The first picture is cultural food the second picture is cultural Art)
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The Mughal Empire

Who: Muslims

What: Defeated Hindus to control India

Where: India

When: Between 14th and 18th centuries

Why was the Mughal Empire decline: Jahan drained the empire of its resources and the power of the central goverment weakened and lead to its decline.

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Akbar

Is the better leader , he is very diverse. Very wonderful at cultural blending. He married a Hindu princesses without forcing them to convert, spoke Persian, and was influenced by other cultures in area of art, literature and architecture.
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Shan Jahan

Jahan was a horrible leader. He only focused on building and planting gardens while his people suffered.
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Aurangzeb