Cells

By: Kashyia Henry

Cell Organelles

Nucleus- the control center of the cell.

Nucleolus- the region in the nucleus where DNA is.

Mitochondria- produces energy for the cell.

Lysosome- digest the cell's waste.

Cell Membrane- protects the cell.

Golgi Apparatus- packages and transports proteins.

Cell Wall- provides structure and support only in plant cell.

Cytoskeleton- gives the cell structure.

Smooth ER- makes lipids, hormones and breaks down toxin.

Rough ER- makes proteins.

Vacuole- stores water, nutrients, waste and other substances only in plant cells.

Chloroplast- use light energy (photosynthesis) only in plant cells.

Cytoplasm- liquid surrounding all cell organelles.

Chromosomes- scrunched up DNA.






Lipid Layer

  • Lipid layer, also called a lipid bilayer is phospholipids arranged in a double layer.
  • A phospholipid is a phosphate and two fatty acids connected together.
  • A enzyme is a protein that helps speed reaction.
  • A receptor protein is a protein that receives chemical signals from each other.
  • A signal protein is a protein that helps to identify the types of cells.
  • A transport protein is a protein that go through the cell membrane that allows things to go in and out


Cell Transport

There are two different types of cell transport, active and passive transport.


  • Active transport - movement using energy (ATP) against concentration gradient.
  • Passive transport - movement along the concentration gradient, no energy needed.
There are three types of passive transport.

  • Diffusion - random movement
  • Osmosis - diffusion of water
  • Facilitated Diffusion - helper protein allows movement along the concentration gradient
There are three types of active transport.

  • Na/K pump - ATP sends out three sodium atoms and brings in two potassium atoms
  • Endocytosis - moving cells inside
  • Exocytosis - releasing large particles