01/11/16 By Connery Pierce, Jordan Debord, Jake Leibow
The Closing Of Our Paper
Today we have found out that our lovely paper will be closing. Yes we know that this will be are only paper. This paper is amazing we know, but all good things must come to an end. We hope you will tune in to other papers and always know that ours is better.
Sincerely your favorite executive writer,
Table of Contents
Page 1- Nativism
Page 2- Politics
Page 3- Court Cases
Page 4- Scopes Monkey Trial
Page 5- Innovations, Innovators & Culture
Page 6- Letter to the Editor
Page 7- Political Cartoon & Analysis
The policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
"a deep vein of xenophobia and nativism"
When is started-November 27, 1920, some two hundred mysterious figures threaded their way behind a torch bearer through the downtown streets of Houston.
Several days earlier, the Houston Post had announced the Klansmen’s appearance. Colonel William Joseph Simmons, the second Klan’s founder, spoke about its goals and objectives at the First Christian Church. His address, “The Ku Klux Klan, Yesterday, Today, and Forever,” was phrased in the rhetoric of “pure Americanism” and white supremacy. He praised the order for its role as the nation’s greatest benefactor and claimed that racial mixing would lead inevitably to the destruction of the white race.
1: The End of Wilsonianism- The Republican politics of the 1920s sprung from the repudiation of Woodrow Wilson.Wilson had never governed with the support of a majority of voters.
2: Warren G. Harding's Pro-Business "Normalcy"- American people supported neither Wilson's international commitments nor his domestic interventions into the economy and society. In 1920, they elected to the presidency, by a landslide, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio. Andrew Mellon, cut income tax rates for the wealthiest Americans from 73% to 25%. Jay Gatsbys of the world to achieve an unprecedented level of material affluence, but it also exacerbated the maldistribution of wealth between rich and poor.
3:Harding's Corruption: Worst President Ever?-Due to endemic corruption such as that of Teapot Dome, historians today usually consider Warren G. Harding to be a leading candidate for the dubious title of "worst president ever.".
4: Herbert Hoover's Promise: "Triumph Over Poverty"- Herbert Hoover, a former mining engineer, war-relief administrator, and Secretary of Commerce considered by many to be the greatest man of his generation. Hoover had helped to stave off a postwar depression by successfully encouraging leading businessmen voluntarily to pursue policies of growth rather than retrenchment.
5: Teapot Dome scandal- The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall had leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming and two other locations in California to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation. Thomas J. Walsh. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies and became the first Cabinet member to go to prison "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics".
During the Red Scare of 1919 - 1920, many in the United States feared recent immigrants and dissidents, particularly those who embraced communist, socialist, or anarchist ideology. The causes of the Red Scare included:
World War I, led many to embrace strong nationalistic and anti-immigrant sympathies;
The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, which led many to fear that immigrants, particularly from Russia, southern Europe, and eastern Europe, intended to overthrow the United States government;
The end of World War I, production needed to decline and unemployment to rise. Many workers joined labor unions. Labor strikes, including the Boston Police Strike in September 1919, contributed to fears that radicals intended to spark a revolution;
Self-proclaimed anarchists' mailing bombs to prominent Americans, including United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and United States Supreme Court Associate Justice (and former Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice) Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr..
A Red Scare is the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, used by anti-leftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism.
Scopes Monkey Trial
The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. It all began when the state of Tennessee passed a law making it a crime to teach evolution in public schools. The ACLU placed an ad inviting a teacher to help test the law in the courts.John Scopes was playing tennis when a group of businessmen called him to the town gathering place, Robinson's drugstore. They asked if he would be willing to be indicted for teaching evolution. Though he couldn't remember actually teaching Darwin's theory, Scopes believed in evolution and agreed to the plan.For Scopes, the trial had been an ordeal. When it was all over, he gave up teaching and left town. He accepted a scholarship to the University of Chicago, received a master's degree in geology and took a job as a petroleum engineer in Venezuela -- where no one had ever heard of him. John Scopes called Darrow “the best read man I have ever known” (COS, 225)). Through his voracious reading he absorbed the mechanistic thinking and modernist notions of the age. Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud all shaped Darrow. He also, undoubtedly, was influenced by the times. July 21, 1925: Scopes 'Monkey Trial' Ends With Guilty Verdict. 1925: John Scopes, an unassuming high school biology teacher and part-time football coach, is found guilty of teaching evolution in schools, in violation of Tennessee law.
Innovations, Innovators & Culture
Flappers The New Big Thing
Why Flappers Were Important
"Flappers had a very important part of the 1920's. It is when women started being independent, making her own decisions, and becoming her own person.It was very uncommon for a girl/woman to act and dress in such a way that drew attention to herself."
The Life of a Flapper
“Flappers were northern, urban, single, young, middle-class women. Many held steady jobs in the changing American economy. Increasing phone usage required more and more operators. Women were needed on the sales floor to relate to the most precious customers — other women. But the flapper was not all work and no play.
By night, flappers engaged in the active city nightlife. They frequented jazz clubs and vaudeville shows. Speakeasies were a common destination, as the new woman of the twenties adopted the same carefree attitude toward prohibition as her male counterpart. Ironically, more young women consumed alcohol in the decade it was illegal than ever before. Smoking, another activity previously reserved for men, became popular among flappers.
With the political field leveled by the Nineteenth Amendment, women sought to eliminate social double standards. ”
The Style of Flappers
"The flapper had an unmistakable look. Young women had their hair cut to shoulder length. Hemlines of dresses rose dramatically to the knee. The cosmetics industry flowered as women used makeup in large numbers. Flappers bound their chests and wore high heels. Clara Bow, Hollywood's "It" Girl, captured the flapper image for the nation to see.
Many women celebrated the age of the flapper as a female declaration of independence. Experimentation with new looks, jobs, and lifestyles seemed liberating compared with the socially silenced woman in the Victorian Age. The flappers chose activities to please themselves, not a father or husband. But critics were quick to elucidate the shortcomings of flapperism. The political agenda embraced by the previous generation was largely ignored until the feminist revival of the 1960s. Many wondered if flappers were expressing themselves or acting like men. Smoking, drinking, and sexual experimentation were characteristic of the modern young woman. Short hair and bound chests added to the effect. One thing was certain: Despite the potential political and social gains or losses, the flappers of the 1920s sure managed to have a good time."
Henry Ford Jordan
Henry Ford developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would profoundly impact the landscape of the twentieth century.
As the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace.