Manasa Muppirala (1st Period)
The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Six of the missions achieved this goal, and returned a wealth of scientific data and almost 400 kilograms of lunar samples. Apollos 7 and 9 were Earth orbiting missions to test the Command and Lunar Modules, and did not return lunar data. Apollos 8 and 10 tested various constituents while orbiting the Moon, and returned photography of the lunar surface. Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon due to a malfunction, but returned photographs as well. Experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind experiments.
Influence of Media
Establishing American Predominance
Altered Public View of Earth
"Everything that I ever knew – my life, my loved ones, the Navy – everything, the whole world was behind my thumb." –James Lovell.One significant effect of the Apollo program was the newly adopted public view of Earth as a fragile, small planet, captured in photographs taken by the astronauts during the lunar missions. The most famous, taken by the Apollo 17 astronauts, is The Blue Marble. Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on the profound effects that seeing Earth from space has had on them.
Cultural Influences on Design
Legend of the Black Taj Mahal
1889 Exposition Universelle
Other Cultural Influences
Chinese Americans and the Transcontinental Railroad
Testing a New Source of Labor
Injustices Against Chinese Immigrants
Influence of Indian Independence Movements
Shaka was a remarkable Zulu king and conqueror. He lived in a region of south-east Africa between the Drakensberg and the Indian Ocean, an area populated by several autonomous Nguni chiefdoms. During his brief rule more than a hundred chiefdoms were united in a Zulu kingdom which survived not only the death of its founder but later military defeat and calculated endeavors to split it up.
Once in power Shaka began reorganizing the forces of his people in accordance with ideas he had developed as a warrior. Shaka armed his warriors with short-handled stabbing spears (in contrast to earlier and rather ineffective tactics of hurling spears over long distances) and trained them to move up in close formation to their opponents with their body-length cowhide shields forming a practically impenetrable barrier to anything thrown at them. He also developed new battle formations. A number of regiments extending several ranks deep formed a dense body known as the chest, while on each side a regiment moved forward forming the horns. As the horns curved inward around the enemy, the main body would advance, killing all those who could not break through the encompassing lines. In addition, Shaka enforced a strict code of discipline in his army. By means of much drilling and discipline, Shaka built up his forces, which soon became the terror of the land.
Economic and Social Effects
The development of the military system caused significant economic and social changes. The concentration of youth at the royal barracks resulted in a massive transfer of economic potential to a centralized state. However, the cattle wealth of the whole community throughout the kingdom was greatly improved; even though most of the herds were owned by the king and his chiefs, all shared in the pride roused by the magnificence of the royal herds as well as the pride of belonging to the indomitable military power of Zulu.