Drug Dependency

Ty Gaskins

Alchohol

  • An organic substance formed when a hydroxyl group is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.
  • The substance can be can taken through liquid form through the oral cavity or the mucous membrane,or in rare cases it can be taken through a vapor.
  • To control anger, be more sociable, to feel more powerful, to be a better lover.
  • Alcohol can affect parts of the brain that control movement, speech, judgment, and memory. These effects lead to the familiar signs of drunkenness: difficulty walking, slurred speech, memory lapses, and impulsive behavior.
  • Health effects include brain damage, possible liver cancer, cardiovascular disease.
  • Forms include, liquid, vapor.
  • Detoxification include AA meetings, rehab, and total withdrawal.

Cannabis

  • Cannabis is a depressant drug, which means it slows down messages travelling between your brain and body. When large doses of cannabis are taken, it may also produce hallucinogenic effects. The main active chemical in cannabis is THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol.
  • The substance can be in a leaf form or a oil that can be taken in through the oral cavity, or smoked.
  • In development cannabis can impair the IQ of teenagers, with poorer attention and memory, it also stimulates the brain releasing endorphin's that make the person feel content with whatever is going on.
  • The desired effects of cannabis include feeling content and not caring about what is going on around them and not feeling stress.
  • The forms include the leaf form that is smoked, it can come in a oil that can be drunk, or it is also in a vapor form typically used in medical use.
  • The detoxification include rehab, and drug meeting groups or even withdrawal.
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Cocaine

  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. It produces short-term euphoria, energy, and talkativeness in addition to potentially dangerous physical effects like raising heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Cocaine is usually snorted through the nostrils and absorbed through the membrane. It can also be eaten or absorbed through the gums but the effects are shorter in effect.
  • The desired effects are increased excitement, makes partying better, and to be more creative, eases communication.
  • Cocaine affects the brain by releasing dopamine that makes a person feel good but as long term use continues the brain needs a lot more cocaine to be able to release dopamine, so the brain build a tolerance so more is needed.
  • Health effects of cocaine include, high blood pressure, permanent damage to blood vessels, liver, kidney, and lung damage, malnutrition, severe depression during withdrawal, increased frequency of risky behavior.
  • Comes in a powder, crystal, injection as a liquid or smoked.
  • Detoxification includes, anti-depressant drugs and rehab programs.

Hallucinogens

  • Hallucinogens can be produced naturally or synthetically. The most commonly known hallucinogen is synthetic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) which is sold as a liquid or an absorbent tab or small square of paper. Natural hallucinogenic chemicals are found in plants such as the peyote cactus (mescaline) and some mushrooms (psilocybin).
  • Hallucinogens are usually taken through the oral cavity, that is absorbed within 30 minutes.
  • The desired effects of most hallucinogens are to be more creative, and to escape from the normal world.
  • It effects the brain by tricking the eyes into seeing something they actually didn't and creating false memories. It also releasing dopamines that makes a person feel really good about themselves.
  • Health effects include a tolerance build up, so the release of dopamine is harder for the brain.
  • The forms include powders, pills, and its included in food items.
  • Programs include rehab and detoxification.

Heroin

  • Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is an illegal, highly addictive drug and its use is a serious problem in America. It is both the most abused and the most rapidly acting of the opiates. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants.
  • Users say the reason for heroin use is the relaxation they feel and the feeling of warmness they experience, and a higher motivation to work.
  • Heroin blocks the receptors in the brain that are responsible for pain and effects the brains reward system. Brain activity shows a sense of euphoria and being content while under heroin, because once it enters the brain heroin then turns back into essentially morphine.
  • Heroin abuse is associated with a number of serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV.Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, constipation and gastrointestinal cramping, and liver or kidney disease.
  • Heroin comes in a powder that can be brown or white, the extremely effective heroin comes in a tar for known as black tar heroin commonly the strongest effective of the forms, which can be melted then injected.
  • Detoxification includes withdrawal and rehab commonly a 12 week process.

Meth

  • Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that is similar in structure to amphetamine. Due to its high potential for abuse, methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II drug and is available only through a prescription that cannot be refilled.
  • Meth can be injected through melting the crystals and then injecting the liquid into the vein, it can also be taken in through the oral cavity.
  • Methamphetamine increases the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine, leading to high levels of that chemical in the brain. Dopamine is involved in reward, motivation, the experience of pleasure, and motor function.
  • Meth use can cause irreversible harm: increased heart rate and blood pressure; damaged blood vessels in the brain that can cause strokes or an irregular heartbeat that can, in turn, cause cardiovascular collapse or death; and liver, kidney and lung damage.
  • Forms include crystal, liquid, and vapor.
  • Detox programs include a 12 week rehab program and multiple withdrawals, it usually takes more than one with meth.

Nicotine

  • Nicotine is a naturally occurring toxic chemical found in tobacco plants. It has a fishy odor when warm. Worker exposure may occur during processing and extraction of tobacco. At one time, nicotine was used in the United States as an insecticide and fumigant; however, it is no longer produced or used in this country for this purpose. Nicotine affects the nervous system and the heart.
  • Nicotine is usually smoked through cigarettes or cigars.
  • The desired effects of nicotine is a stress reliefs mechanisms.
  • The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine and its receptors are involved in many functions, including muscle movement, breathing, heart rate, learning, and memory. They also cause the release of other neurotransmitters and hormones that affect your mood, appetite, memory, and more. When nicotine gets into the brain, it attaches to acetylcholine receptors and mimics the actions of acetylcholine.
  • Nicotine is known to cause lung cancer, but it also known to relax people so much that they become lazy and do not have motivation to work.
  • Forms include patches, gum, nasal spray, inhalers, and lozenges.
  • Detoxing includes nicotine patches which don't cause the body harm and a 6 week program to get them off the addiction.
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Painkillers

  • Prescription painkillers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Most painkillers also stimulate portions of the brain associated with pleasure.Thus, in addition to blocking pain, they produce a “high.”
  • Painkillers are known to betaken through injection or pills through the mouth.
  • Opioids act by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs in the body. When these drugs attach to their receptors, they reduce the perception of pain.
  • Painkillers can also produce drowsiness, mental confusion, nausea, constipation, and, depending upon the amount of drug taken, can depress respiration.
  • Painkillers include, morphine, codeines, and opioids.
  • Detoxing includes a 12 week rehab program.