The Cardiovascular System
- Plasma: 55%
- Erythrocytes: 45%
- Leukocytes: less than 1%
- Thrombocytes: less than 1%
How much blood is in our body?
- males: 5-6 liters
- females: 4-5 liters
Where is blood produced in the body?
- red bone marrow
What controls the production of blood in the body?
- the hormone erythropoietin controls the production of blood in the body because it stimulates the stem cells in the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells
- yellowish tint
- fluid matrix of the blood; liquid
What are some characteristics?
- helps to maintain blood flow
- made up of 90% water
- plasma proteins are produced by the liver and make up 7-9% of plasma
- albumin: most common type of protein and is important for controlling blood volume
What is the function of plasma?
- helps maintain blood flow
How does it help our body maintain homeostasis?
- keeps cell contents in it and keeps foreign material out
Why are people paid to donate plasma? How does this process work?
- plasma contains proteins which some people cannot make so they need to get transfusions
- scientists separate the plasma from the blood to get the proteins needed for some other patients then, the scientists put the blood (without plasma) back into the person's body through a needle
- scientists centrifuge the blood to separate the plasma from the rest of the blood
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
- biconcave disk shape
- red (in color)
What are some characteristics?
- does not have a nucleus
- filled with hemoglobin
- produced in the red bone marrow
- usually live 120 days
- recycled in the spleen
What is the function of red blood cells?
- carries carbon dioxide to the rest of the body
- transport oxygen from the lungs to other cells in the body
How do red blood cells help our body maintain homeostasis?
- helps maintain the proper carbon dioxide and oxygen levels throughout the body
Describe what a hematocrit test is and how it works:
- measures the total blood volume made up by the red blood cells
- scientists place blood in a hematocrit tube and then centrifuge it so the heavier formed elements will quickly settle to the bottom of the tube which forces the red blood cells to the bottom first
Describe the importance of hemoglobin in RBC's and what a hemoglobin test is:
- hemoglobin carries oxygen
- a hemoglobin test is used to determine how much hemoglobin is in the blood
What is anemia and describe 5 types of anemia (include possible treatments):
- anemia is used to describe a number of different disease conditions caused by an inability of the blood to carry sufficient oxygen to the body cells
- iron deficiency anemia: inadequate amounts of iron in the diet which results in the body not being able to manufacture enough hemoglobin; treatments: eating more iron in one's diet or taking an iron supplement
- hemolytic anemia: abnormal breakdown of red blood cells in blood vessels or other parts of the body; treatments: corticosteroid medications, removal of the spleen, immunosuppressive drugs, or intravenous immune globulin infusions
- hemorrhagic anemia: decrease in the number of RBCs caused by hemorrhage resulting from accidents or bleeding ulcers; treatments: medications, blood and marrow stem cell transplant, or surgery
- sickle cell anemia: caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin in the blood and RBCs contain a small amount of a type of hemoglobin that is less soluble than normal; treatment: medications
- pernicious anemia: a deficiency in the production of red blood cells through a lack of vitamin B12; treatment: B12 injections, or blood tests to monitor blood replacements
What is polycythemia, what are some causes, and how could it be treated?
- when bone marrow produces an excess amount of RBCs
- this then can cause the blood to become too thick to flow properly which results in a stroke or heart attack
- treatment: medications
Describe the process of donating blood.
- health history and mini-physical
- the donation: takes about 8-10 minutes and takes close to a pint of blood
- refreshments: donors have the chance to re-hydrate and build up their energy after the donation and they need to stay for at least 10-15 minutes after the donation
How often can it be done?
- the donor must wait at least eight weeks
How is it used and how long does the blood last?
- a patient in need of blood (due to blood loss from an accident, surgery, etc.) receives a blood transfusion from a donor
- blood can last approximately 42 days
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
- the Buffy coat in the centrifuged blood
- all have a nucleus
- larger than red blood cells
- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes
What are some characteristics?
- produced in red bone marrow
- function in the immune system
- contain granulocytes or agranulocytes
- phagocytosis: ability to engulf foreign material and digest it
- chemotaxis: cells are drawn to an area by chemical release (histamine, bradykinin, etc)
- diapedis: movement of cells through vessels and tissues
What is the function of white blood cells?
- fight off pathogens (bacteria, viruses, diseases)
How do they help our body maintain homeostasis?
- keep foreign viruses and bacteria out of the body to keep it healthy
Describe the five types of white blood cells:
- neutrophils: makes up 60% of white blood cells, seen in acute bacterial infections, highly phagocytic, have a segmented nucleus (usually 3 lobes), and show up light purple on a slide
- eosinophils: larger than neutrophils, bilobed nucleus, makes up 2% of total white blood cells, fights parasitic infections, breaks down antibody complex, and stains red/orange
- basophils: rarest cells of all (only .0004%), bilobed nucleus, stains dark blue/purple, involved in inflammation (histamine, bradykinin), and contains heparin (anticoagulant)
- lymphocytes: second most numerous (31%), round nucleus with very little cytoplasm, lives a very long life, produces immunity, non-phagocytic, and fights viruses
- monocytes: also called macrophages, largest of all white blood cells, kidney shaped nucleus, highly phagocytic, and seen in chronic infections
Describe the following conditions related to white blood cells and common treatments for each:
- Leukopenia: abnormally low white blood cell count; treatment: vitamin supplements, or sometimes bone marrow treatments to allow the healthy white blood cells to be made
- Leukemia: describes the number of blood cancers affecting the white blood cells; treatment: chemotherapy, or hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Mononucleosis: abnormally high amounts of monocytes are in the blood; treatment: rest, corticosteroids to prevent swelling
- Multiple myeloma: blood cancer that develops in the bone marrow and is a cancer of the plasma cells; treatment: chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant
- small, dot like shapes in the blood that helps clotting
What are some characteristics?
- produced in bone marrow
- responsible for initiating a clot (platelet plug)
What is the function of platelets and how do they help our body maintain homeostasis?
- helps with the stoppage of blood (clotting)
- when one gets a cut or injury that causes bleeding, the platelets help stop the bleeding so the body does not lose as much blood.
Describe the events that occur during homeostasis:
- vascular spasm
- platelet plug (temporary seal)-fibrinogen
- clotting cascade also called coagulation
Describe what hemophilia is and how it is treated:
- the reduction of the body's ability to clot blood
- the body will keep bleeding if a cut or severe injury were to occur, which could be life threatening
- treatments: replacement therapy (clotting factors are slowly dripped into a vein, which helps replace the clotting factor that is missing or below average)
- coumadin or warfarin: used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots
- heparin: prevents the formation of blood clots or is used before surgery to decrease the chance of a blood clot
- aspirin: reduces substances in the body to prevent pain, fever, or inflammation and sometimes even chest pain, heart attack, or stroke
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