Inside the ELA Classroom

February 2020

Vocabulary is often times correlated with reading comprehension. Instruction in vocabulary involves more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction. If students do not understand the words, how could they be expected to understand the key points of a text or follow the plot of a story.


The Vocabulary standards in the Language strand of the GSE are not solely asking for the meaning of a word. These standards are focused on the strategies used to determine word meaning. Context, understanding grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes, or relationships between words are strategies that provide insight into word meaning.
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Robust Vocabulary Instruction

This article originally appeared on the Mr. G Mpls Blog. It has been reproduced here with permission from the author. Reposted by Jon Gustafson for Achieve the Core. on 9/30/2019

*rearranged for the ELA newsletter publication.


Why Is Vocabulary Important?


What many have passed off as vocabulary instruction is completely inadequate and fails to allow students the opportunity to take advantage of the power of a deep and interconnected vocabulary.


  • Repetitively teaching vocabulary with the same definition (this is actually rote learning)
  • Using matching exercises and one-dimensional puzzles
  • Having students copy opaque, poorly-written definitions from dictionaries or glossaries
  • Challenging students to vaguely “write a new sentence using this word.”


“The importance of vocabulary is beyond doubt…such knowledge is integral to any activities that involve language, and psychologists have shown how vocabulary is more than a list of ‘word meanings in the mind,’ but actually functions as an index of a much richer and harder to measure constellation of understandings and experiences.” In Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013) highlight the close relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension.


How can teachers best approach the daunting, yet crucial challenge of vocabulary instruction? First though, we have to figure out what vocabulary to teach.


Three Tier Framework


The Three Tier framework, articulated by Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013), is a powerful tool to help teachers categorize and identify high-value vocabulary that can improve students’ verbal functioning and reading comprehension. Essentially, words are categorized into three buckets:


  • Tier One: “Words typically found in oral language.” These words are typically found in high frequency word lists, and do not require much focus as students hear these on a regular basis in conversation.
  • Tier Three: “Words that tend to be limited to specific domains.” These are the words textbooks typically put in bold. While important, these words have limited use outside the specific content area, and are not very helpful for enriching descriptions or explanations.
  • Tier Two: “Words that are more characteristic of written language, and not so common in conversation.” These are words that students will not hear, but will encounter across various domains as they read and write in school. These words are to be prioritized for instruction.


It’s estimated that to read with minimal disturbance in comprehension, readers need a vocabulary of around 15,000 words. Of those 15,000 words, Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013) conclude that 8,000 are Tier One which require minimal focus, and 7,000 are Tier Two and should be the focus of robust vocabulary instruction. That breaks down to between 300-400 Tier Two words per year to be deliberately taught alongside the context/content they authentically arise.


Tier Two words are so important because they fundamentally expand students’ verbal functioning by building rich representations of words that can be used in a variety of contexts. These Tier Two words empower students to provide more specific, mature ways of describing and explaining the world. While an exact science does not exist to pinpoint Tier Two vocabulary, Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013) do provide some helpful questions to ponder when identifying Tier 2 words.


  1. Generally, how useful is the word; will students see it in multiple contexts; will it help students better describe their experiences?
  2. How does the word contribute to the overall text being read; does it communicate vital meaning or tone?
  3. How does the word relate to other words and previously-learned content?


Having identified a rough process identifying Tier Two vocabulary, what are best practices for introducing, teaching, and assessing this vocabulary?


Best Practices for Teaching Vocabulary


To accomplish frequent and robust encounters with vocabulary, the instructional sequence for words is spread across at least three days, but ideally five or more days. Students participate in deliberately-designed exercises to use the words. Here is an outline of the instructional sequence recommended in Bringing Words to Life:


  • Day 1: Introduce words to students with student-friendly explanations and context
  • Days 2-4: Follow-up activities
    • Identify examples/non-examples; form word associations with new contexts, additional writing exercises (The Writing Revolution makes for a great supplement here).
  • Day 5: Assessment


When introducing new vocabulary, Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013) highlight the importance of providing student-friendly explanations, the original context the word came from, and opportunities for students to interact with word meanings. “A robust approach to vocabulary involves directly explaining the meanings of words along with thought-provoking, playful, and interactive follow-up.”


Summary


Robust vocabulary instruction is a crucial driver of knowledge-building. While many knowledge-rich curricula might emphasize the importance of vocabulary and identify key vocabulary words in each lesson (typically Tier Three), ultimately the quality and robustness of vocabulary instruction comes down to teacher expertise and judgement.


Shanahan (2005) summarizes it best: “the most effective direct instruction in vocabulary helps students gain deep understanding of word meanings (much more than simple dictionary definitions); requires plenty of reading, writing, talking, and listening; emphasizes the interconnections among words and word meanings and the connections of words to children’s own experiences; and provides abundant ongoing review and repetition.”


We do a disservice to students when we devalue vocabulary instruction to a level of copying definitions and matching exercises. Knowledge-building is made more robust with vocabulary instruction.


References

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. Guilford Press.


Shanahan, T. (2005). The National Reading Panel Report. Practical Advice for Teachers. Learning Point Associates/North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL).


Copied from Achieve the Core: Classroom Strategies

Robust vocabulary Instruction: Brining Knowledge-Rich Curricula to Life

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Newsela update

Newsela current Events will continue to be available for free. Genres outside of current events will require a subscription. Power Words are research-based vocabulary words used across a range of texts. Hundreds of Newsela articles have Power Words embedded at each reading level, allowing students learn vocabulary as they read Newsela articles.


  • Newsela Social Studies replaces outdated or unvetted social studies materials with current, high-quality content that’s differentiated and mapped to social studies standards on arrival.

  • Newsela Science gives teachers the authentic, accessible texts they need to integrate science and literacy according to new standards, and support hands-on science instruction with background knowledge and real-world connections.

  • Newsela ELA is the answer to ELA curricula that lack the context and relevance teachers demand and students need. A constant stream of real-world, standards-aligned, leveled texts across 20+ genres let you create engaging ELA lessons while delivering the skills, background knowledge and vocabulary required by individual state standards.
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Spiral review is a critical component of any plan. Imagine learning something new with a week - a month - two months - or a semester going by before reviewing the material. Spiral review s help the students retain all the information they have learned. The students learn to make connections and store information for later use. Spiral review of previously learned content builds vocabulary and fluency skills (Wasowicz, 2010).


Teaching different comprehension strategies continuously through the year instead of in one big "chunk" (during reading block) falls in this scenario. Comprehension / reading strategies need to be taught in a spiral fashion across the content and genre. This practice allows students to review and practice consistently. This is important for students because learning is continuous which means texts and required expectations change along with Lexile material and rigor.

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Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary is one of five core components of reading instruction that are essential to successfully teach children how to read. “Vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas and content together… making comprehension accessible for children.” (Rupley, Logan & Nichols, 1998/99). Students’ word knowledge is linked strongly to academic success because students who have large vocabularies can understand new ideas and concepts more quickly than students with limited vocabularies. Students learn new words by encountering them in text, either through their own reading or by being read to. Increasing the opportunities for such encounters improves students' vocabulary knowledge, which, in turn, improves their ability to read more and more complex text. In short, the single most important thing you can do to improve students' vocabularies is to get them to read more.


To help students get the most out of reading, you should encourage them to read at a variety of levels — some text simply for enjoyment, which should benefit their fluency if nothing else — and some text that challenges them. You should also help students develop reading strategies that will allow them to read more challenging texts with lower levels of frustration. When students have been taught comprehension strategies, they tend to do more reading. (Guthrie J.T., et al, 1995).




Guthrie J.T., Schafer, W.D., Wang, Y., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Relationships of instruction to amount of reading: An exploration of social, cognitive and instructional connections. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 8-25.

Classroom Innovation Summit

On Friday, May 29, Coweta County School System will host a Classroom Innovation Summit. The summit is designed to showcase innovative classroom practices and resources that any teacher could use to enhance their classroom. Session range from Google Classroom hacks to becoming a GMail ninja to PBIS best practices to classroom data hacks and many more! If you have an idea for a presentation please submit a proposal here! Session are 50 minutes long. Presenters get free admission, lunch, and extra door prize tickets. Know someone who should present? Share this with them!
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Utilize the One-Pager

A One Pager is a single-page response to reading. It allows students to be creative and experimental. This activity connects verbal and visual - it connects words and images. The one-pager becomes a metaphor for the reading. Follow the link to find a one page document that requires a high-level overview to complete. The one-pager is visually stunning, forces critical thinking, and allows students to showcase originality and perspective.
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Click on the graphic above or HERE to access some step-by-step processes to help maneuver the new platform.


Don’t forget, we have the online support of Renaissance

  • Live Chat: The link for the live chat is in the upper right-hand corner of your Renaissance home page when you are logged in.
  • Email Support: Email us at answers@renaissance.com.
  • Renaissance Refresher: Subscribe to the bi-weekly E-Newsletter and stay informed about key updates. The newsletter includes tips and resources.

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February Activities

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KidLit TV

KidLit TV Shows

  • STORYMAKERS, our flagship series, is an entertaining talk show highlighting bestselling kid lit authors and illustrators. The series is hosted by Rocco Staino, Contributing Editor at School Library Journal, a contributing writer at The Huffington Post, and Director of Empire State Center for the Book, affiliate of the U.S. Library of Congress.
  • READ OUT LOUD – Enjoy story time with authors at KLTV HQ!
  • READY SET DRAW! – Get inspired to draw with talented illustrators from children’s literature.
  • YOUNG AT ART with James Ransome – On this series, kids learn basic and intermediate art skills used in children’s book illustrations!
  • IN STUDIO – Join the KLTV film crew as we visit artists’ studios around the world!
  • PAST PRESENT: GIVING PAST STORIES NEW LIFE with Lesa Cline-Ransome – Explore non-fiction story writing, share how we can learn about ourselves and find common bonds with people from the past.
  • PHIL’S FAST FIVE – A fun, fast-paced Q&A hosted by author Phil Bildner.
  • THE TRUTH ABOUT LIBRARIES – Find out what REALLY happens in the library!
  • WHAT BECOMES A CLASSIC? with Leonard Marcus digs into the historical and cultural context around the creation of a children’s classic.
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Trapped in a Snowglobe - The Madras Way

I loved the latitude of this narrative! After I revealed the prompt, my students told me they had written on this in fourth grade, so many were able to pull up their work and immediately recognized the quirks and awkwardness. To prepare for revising and writing, we reviewed the GSEs, looked at the narrative exemplars from the narrative training, and reflected on the general expectations for writing within the classroom — take risks, do something different, and try something weird. Students were advised to reformat the piece by using in media res and to improve the style and development in order to meet eighth-grade GSE as well as teacher expectations.


Angela D. Rembert, Ed.S.

8th grade ELA REACH

2018 Madras TOTY

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Willis Road Elementary

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Exit Slips to Foster Writing

Writing , even in brief formats, can help students reflect on what they have learned. (Marzano, 2012). Exit slips are a quick and easy way for students to maintain involvement with a lesson even as it ends. It only takes a few minutes to engage students in a summarizing activity where they jot down their thoughts, re-frame their learning, and formulate areas to review.


Step-By-Step


1. The first step is to determine the type of information needed to check students' understanding. Three most common types of exit slips are:


Prompts that document learning

  • The three most important things I learned today are...
  • Today I changed my mind about....
  • What I would like to tell someone else about what I learned today is...


Prompts that emphasize the process of learning


  • Two questions I have about what we did in class today are...
  • I am confused about...
  • What I would like to learn next is...


Prompts to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction


  • The thing that helped me pay attention most today was...
  • The thing that helped me understand the most today was...
  • Something that did not help me today was.....
  • One thing that really confused me today was...


2. Make sure to leave enough time at the end of the class session (or lesson) for students to respond to the prompt.


3. Collect students' writing as they leave the classroom or you transition to another content of study or activity. This will provide direction for you as you make instructional decisions (remediation and enrichment). Do not worry about editing and returning the slips. The primary focus is for teachers to understand how the students think.

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Writing Ideas for February

1. Think about a lesson you learned. Who taught you the lesson? How can you share it with others?

2. Describe a friend who is not very much like you. How are you different? What are some things you share?

3. What is your favorite hobby. Describe the hobby. Why do you love it?

4. The snowman suddenly began to move...

5. Does snow falling have a sound? How do you know?

6. Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812. In an interview his said that childhood memories helped him create fictional stories. What are some memories that could someday be turned into a fictional story?

7. February 10th is "Umbrella Day." You have been asked by the Governor of Georgia to design an umbrella to represent our state. What type of design would you create and why? (use city umbrella if necessary)

8. Write a descriptive summary of how you can show love and appreciation for a parent or teacher.

9. Describe a special moment when you felt loved.

10. "To have a heart of gold" means to care about other people. Describe someone you know who has a heart of gold.

11. Write an acrostic VALENTINE poem.

12. A cinquain is a non-rhyming five-line poem that focuses on imagery and the natural world. Write a cinquain poem.

13. Write a review for a book that you loved reading.

14. I would love to visit ____ because...

15. Dr. Guion Bluford was the first African American astronaut to travel in space. Write a letter to Dr. Guion persuading him to come to your school and talk with your class about what he saw in space.

16. Write a story with three different endings.

17. Think of someone you do not like. Write a descriptive paragraph about them and list THREE GOOD THINGS about them.

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Writing contests added in this publication! Look carefully.

Young Georgia Authors Writing Competition

Each school is invited to submit one entry per grade level (K-12) for the district level competition. Students may write from a genre of their choice. This link will direct you to the landing page to see 2019 winning entries and honorable mention entries. The revised Official Rules Booklet is available HERE. At the district level we will follow all guidelines provided in the booklet. Entries may include: Short Stories, Poetry, Essays/Literary Criticism/Analysis, Journalism, Academic/Research Reports, Personal Narratives, or any other original student work.


School level winning entries must be received by Thursday, February 6, 2020, 5:00pm. Please send four copies of each winning entry, the original piece, and the completed 2019-2020 Entry Form with parent signature.


A panel of reviewers will select the Coweta County School System grade level winning entries. District winners will be announced by February 28th.

GPB's 2020 Writers Contest

Georgia students in kindergarten through third grade to create a great story, illustrate it, and enter it in our PBS KIDS Writers Contest. The deadline for submissions is March 20, 2020.


Stories can be fact or fiction, poetry or prose, and will be judged on originality, creative expression, storytelling, and integration of illustrations. A first, second, and third place will be chosen from each grade level. Additionally, four stories (one from each grade level) will be selected for the STEAM Award if their story effectively incorporates science, technology, engineering, arts, and/or mathematics.


Entries are judged by an independent panel of judges. Once the winning stories are chosen, the winners and their families will be invited to attend the awards ceremony at GPB headquarters, where each child will be honored at a special reception. Winners will also get to narrate their story in the GPB radio studio, reading their winning entry. Winning entries will appear on gpb.org website.


The deadline for submissions is March 20, 2020.


2020 GPB Writers Contest Rules

2020 GPB Writers Contest Entry Form

Achievement Awards in Writing (11th grade students)

2020 AAW Prompt: Why Do I Write? (#whydoiwrite)


Purpose: To encourage high school juniors to write and to publicly recognize the best student writers.

  • Schools in the United States, Canada, Virgin Islands and American Schools Abroad are eligible to nominate juniors. Nominating schools must be US accredited.
  • Participating students submit two types of writing: themed writing and best writing.
  • Electronic submissions only. Deadline February 14, 2020

Promising Young Writers Program (8th grade students)

2020 Themed Writing Prompt


My Nature

If we will have the wisdom to survive

to stand like slow growing trees

on a ruined place, renewing, enriching it

then a long time after we are dead

the lives our lives prepare

will live here.

—Wendell Berry


Much of the suffering in the world arises from human beings’ tendency to forget, deny, or misunderstand our primary bond with Nature, our dependence on Life for life. This year, we invite you to write about your relationship with Nature.


DEADLINE for All Submissions: February 15, 2020*

Kennesaw Mountain Writing Project

Leslie Walker - Writers of Promise Contest


Teachers are invited to submit up to 20 of their students’ most interesting pieces to our contest.

  • Open to All Content Areas
  • Entries are judged in three groups GRADES 3-5 GRADES 6-8 GRADES 9-12
  • Submission Dates February 10 to April 14
  • Entries may be submitted digitally via kmwp.org or e-mail

American Foreign Service High School Essay Contest

The American Foreign Service Association’s national high school essay contest completed its twenty-first year with nearly 700 submissions from 41 states and five countries.


Age Group: 9th–12th grades

Deadline for submission: April 6, 2020


How to Enter: Each year a new prompt is published in September. Stay tuned to the contest web page so you can find it when school begins. Winners receive full tuition to the Semester at Sea program as well as a trip to Washington, DC, to meet with a leader at the Department of State.

The Ocean Awareness Contest

This competition invites students to use their creativity to make a difference for our planet. As the creators share on their website, “Our contest is a call for young artists, thinkers, and activists who are concerned about the future of our human and natural communities to use their creative voices to explore, express, and advocate for issues related to climate change and our oceans.” Students are eligible for a wide range of monetary prizes.


Age Groups: Ages 11–14 (Jr. Division); Ages 15–18 (Sr. Division)

Contest deadline: June 15, 2020


How to Enter: Students may submit work in the categories of art, poetry, prose, film, or music which must always be accompanied by a reflection. Check out the contest details for a set of educator resources as well as the new contest prompt coming out in September.

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ELA Professional Learning Sessions

ELEMENTARY


Tuesday, February 4th, 2:45 - 3:45pm

Werz, SD-1

Grade 3 District meeting

All 3rd grade teachers are invited to participate in this district ELA department meeting. Participants are asked to bring a Chromebook.


Thursday, February 6th, 2:45 - 3:45pm

Werz, SD-1

Grade 4 District meeting

All 4th grade teachers are invited to participate in this district ELA department meeting. Participants are asked to bring a Chromebook.


Monday, February 10th, 7:00pm

Webinar

Guided Reading with Raz Plus

In this professional learning session teachers will discuss how to use Raz Plus as a tool for Guided Reading Instruction. Register here. (There is no cost.)


Thursday, February 13th, 2:45 - 3:45pm

Werz, SD-1

Grade 5 District meeting

All 5th grade teachers are invited to participate in this district ELA department meeting. Participants are asked to bring a Chromebook.


Tuesday, February 18th, 6:45pm

Webinar

Build Skills with Text Sets and Comprehension Packs in Raz-Plus and Reading A-Z

In this professional learning session teachers will review the resources available in Raz-Plus and Reading A-Z and discuss strategies to utilize text sets in the classroom. Register here. (There is no cost.)


Tuesday, February 25th, 8:30 - 3:30pm

Griffin RESA

What's the Buzz About Mentor Texts? K-8

In the professional learning experience teachers will explore how mentor texts can be used to meet ELA objectives. Teachers will work through ideas for developing mentor text lessons planned for whole class, small group, and one-to-one instruction. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Wednesday, February 26th, 8:30 - 3:30pm

Griffin RESA

Great Guided Reading: Making it Fabulous!

In the professional learning experience teachers will gain clarity on how to use guided reading best practices, how to group students via assessments and needs, and choose appropriate texts. Participants will use lesson plan templates to walk through the key components and teaching steps. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Friday, February 28th, 6:45pm

Webinar

Build Skills with Text Sets and Comprehension Packs in Raz-Plus and Reading A-Z

In this professional learning session teachers will review the resources available in Raz-Plus and Reading A-Z and discuss strategies to utilize text sets in the classroom. Register here. (There is no cost.)


Wednesday, March 4th, 8:30 -3:30pm

Griffin RESA

Your Writing Recipe: Finding Your Secret Sauce

This professional learning opportunity is designed to simplify and clarify writing instruction and help participants develop their own "secret sauce" for success. The workshop will explore the practice of establishing a mentorship environment complete with mini lessons, and writing conferences. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Please review your Professional Learning Schedule for a complete list of opportunities.


MIDDLE


Wednesday, February 5th, 4:00 - 5:00pm

Werz, SD-1

Using Document Based Questioning & GPB Resources

All secondary ELA teachers are invited to participate in this session. The discussion topics will include free resources available through GPB Education. Participants are asked to bring a Chromebook.


Tuesday, February 25th, 8:30 - 3:30pm

Griffin RESA

What's the Buzz About Mentor Texts? K-8

In the professional learning experience teachers will explore how mentor texts can be used to meet ELA objectives. Teachers will work through ideas for developing mentor text lessons planned for whole class, small group, and one-to-one instruction. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Wednesday, March 4th, 8:30 -3:30pm

Griffin RESA

Your Writing Recipe: Finding Your Secret Sauce

This professional learning opportunity is designed to simplify and clarify writing instruction and help participants develop their own "secret sauce" for success. The workshop will explore the practice of establishing a mentorship environment complete with mini lessons, and writing conferences. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Please review your Professional Learning Schedule for a complete list.



HIGH


Wednesday, February 5th, 4:00 - 5:00pm

Werz, SD-1

Using Document Based Questioning & GPB Resources

All secondary ELA teachers are invited to participate in this session. The discussion topics will include free resources available through GPB Education. Participants are asked to bring a Chromebook.


Wednesday, March 4th, 8:30 -3:30pm

Griffin RESA

Your Writing Recipe: Finding Your Secret Sauce

This professional learning opportunity is designed to simplify and clarify writing instruction and help participants develop their own "secret sauce" for success. The workshop will explore the practice of establishing a mentorship environment complete with mini lessons, and writing conferences. Complete the RESA registration process. Use this link to register.


Please review your Professional Learning Schedule. Dates are TBD based on submissions from your Department Chairs.

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Have you heard of "blank page syndrome?" This happens when students stare at a blank screen or paper. The cursor blinks, the pencil swings, or the pen twiddles without any words appearing on the page. Some research says that writing with fluency and volume is unnatural. Through the use of writing strategies, our objective will be to ease the stress of writing for our students.


Research based instructional strategies positively impact student learning. Each month check back for different writing strategies. When using any strategy, teachers should (1) ensure students understand why the strategy is useful, and (2) describe explicitly how the strategy could be used. Demonstrate, model , and follow-up with independent practice opportunities. Remember to share these writing strategies with your colleagues in other content areas. We are in this together!

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Bring in the Periphery

Write rapidly, deliberately trying to include "what's on the edges." The writing should include details about what is literally there, observable, happening, and also connections and ideas that feel they belong.


Tell students to try not to stop their pencils (or typing).

While writing students can jump to what the topics make them think about. Add how it makes them feel or other connections.


Serravallo, J. (2017)

Strategy 6.30

The Writing Strategies Book

Writing Through a Mask (Perspective and Point of View)

Encourage students to think about someone or something and write as if they are viewing the topic through the other person (or thing). Remember to add details that the person or thing would see, feel, or comment on.


Who is telling this story? How is this narrator different from you?


Serravallo, J. (2017)

Strategy 6.32

The Writing Strategies Book

Name Your Characters and Places

Think about the places and characters in the story. What kind of people are in your story? What names fit them? For places, how would you feel if you went there. How do the places smell? What do you see as you look around?


Underline the names of people and places in your writing. Can you add more detail to describe them?


Serravallo, J. (2017)

Strategy 7.29

The Writing Strategies Book

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JANUARY

Speech Bubbles Let Your Characters Talk

Use Imagery to Make Facts Come Alive

Talk to Yourself


DECEMBER

Review previously introduced writing Strategies


NOVEMBER

Quick Writes

TAPE

What's the Writing Rule


OCTOBER

Show, Don't Tell: Using Senses

Show, Don't Tell: Emotions


SEPTEMBER STRATEGIES

Transition Words

Word Mapping

Color Coding


AUGUST STRATEGIES

Making a List

Quick Writes

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Contact Dr. Paula Baker, ELA/Literacy Content Specialist with any questions, comments, or concerns.


Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

~Nelson Mandela


Nine-tenths of education is encouragement.

~Anatole France


The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true education.

~Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.