Jackson? Not His Plan of Action!

All About Andrew Jackson's Presidency

The Indian Removal Act

The Cherokee tribe of Native Americans predominately lived in Georgia, but inhabited other parts of the South-eastern United States as well. Americans settling in the Cherokee land had discovered that there was gold and good land for growing cotton. For this reason, Jackson decided he wanted to acquire the land for the federal government. Thus, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act on May 28, 1832, which allowed the U.S. Government to exchange the Cherokee land with less desirable land West of the Mississippi. The Cherokee took the case to the Supreme Court, and in the landmark case Worcester vs. Georgia, the Court declared the Cherokee nation sovereign, so the federal government was not allowed to re-locate them. However, Jackson, going against the Court's ruling, decided to move the Cherokee Native Americans to Oklahoma.

The Nullification Crisis

Congress passed the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, both of which angered southern states who relied on European imports. South Carolina wanted to nullify the tariff, and they threatened to secede if the federal government interfered. Congress then passed the Force Bill, which allowed the General government to use the U.S. Army to force South Carolina to pay their taxes. The issue was resolved when South Carolina accepted a lowered tax with the 1833 Compromise Tariff.

The Closing of the National Bank

Jackson thought of the National Bank as an organisation which favoured the wealthy, and which ordinary people had no control over. When Congress attempted to pass a bill to renew the National Bank's charter, Jackson vetoed it. Then, he re-directed all federal funds which would have gone to the national bank to smaller state banks, effectively bankrupting it. When the charter for the Bank of the United States expired four years later, it was officially dead.
Big image
The three men in the picture are, from left to right, President Andrew Jackson, Secretary of State Martin Van Buren, and Major Jack Downing, a fictional character created by satirist Seba Smith.

Jackson holds a cane marked veto, and says, "Biddle thou monster, avaunt (go away)! Avaunt, I say! Or by the Great Eternal I'll cleave [split] the to the Earth, aye thee and thy four and twenty satellites. [Darned] if thou art true...Come on! If thou art false, may the venomous monster turn his dire fang upon thee.

Van Buren says, "Well done, General, Major Jack Downing, Adams, Clay, well done all! I dislike dissensions beyond everything, for it often compels a man to play a double part, were it only for his own safety. Policy, policy is my motto, but intrigues I cannot countenance."

Downing says, "Now you nasty varmint, be you imperishable? [I've seen] Generals that are beaten all I reckon; that's the horrible [thing] what [has] wommits (foolishly) venomous heads.

The largest of the heads is that of the President of the National Bank, Nicholas Biddle's. The cartoon signifies Jackson and his killing of the National Bank.

Letter from a Southerner

I don't understand me why ar preseedent Andrew Jackson decided he was gonna pass them tariffs. Ah need me ma stuffs from Europe! I don't wanna pay no mre taxes. I believe we should get rid of those darned tariffs, and impeach our darned preseedent.

Letter from a Frontiersman

President Jackson is truly the common-man's president. He's done so much for me and my country. With that wonderful Indian Removal Act, he's gotten all of those dangerous Cherokees off my land. Oh, how I love President Jackson.

Andrew Jackson

More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man.

Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honour, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel.

Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans.

In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson; by 1828 enough had joined "Old Hickory" to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington.

In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal office-holding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . "

Jackson took a milder view. Decrying office-holders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants.

As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him.

Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of Jackson. Hostile cartoonists portrayed him as King Andrew I.

Behind their accusations lay the fact that Jackson, unlike previous Presidents, did not defer to Congress in policy-making but used his power of the veto and his party leadership to assume command.

The greatest party battle centred around the Second Bank of the United States, a private corporation but virtually a Government-sponsored monopoly. When Jackson appeared hostile toward it, the Bank threw its power against him.

Clay and Webster, who had acted as attorneys for the Bank, led the fight for its re-charter in Congress. "The bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" Jackson, in vetoing the re-charter bill, charged the Bank with undue economic privilege.

His views won approval from the American electorate; in 1832 he polled more than 56 percent of the popular vote and almost five times as many electoral votes as Clay.

Jackson met head-on the challenge of John C. Calhoun, leader of forces trying to rid themselves of a high protective tariff.

When South Carolina undertook to nullify the tariff, Jackson ordered armed forces to Charleston and privately threatened to hang Calhoun. Violence seemed imminent until Clay negotiated a compromise: tariffs were lowered and South Carolina dropped nullification.

In January of 1832, while the President was dining with friends at the White House, someone whispered to him that the Senate had rejected the nomination of Martin Van Buren as Minister to England. Jackson jumped to his feet and exclaimed, "By the Eternal! I'll smash them!" So he did. His favourite, Van Buren, became Vice President, and succeeded to the Presidency when "Old Hickory" retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June 1845.

Freidel, Frank and Sidey, Hugh (2006). Andrew Jackson. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/andrewjackson.

Big Block of Cheese Day Is Back
Wall, Alex (January 16, 2015). Big Block of Cheese Day Is Back, and It's Feta Than Ever. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/01/16/big-block-cheese-day-back-and-its-feta-ever.