Dwight D. Eisenhower


Presidential Election of 1952

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) v. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)
  • Vice President - Richard M. Nixon
  • Eisenhower won with 442 electoral votes and 33,936,234 popular votes.
  • Main opponent - 89 electoral votes, 27,314,992 popular votes
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presidential election of 1956

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) v. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)
  • Vice President - Richard M. Nixon
  • Eisenhower won with 457 electoral votes and 35,590,472 popular votes.
  • Main opponent - 73 electoral votes, 26,022,752 popular votes
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Cold war

  • sustained state of political and military tensions between the USSR and United States from 1947 to 1991
Key Events
  • 1953 - Dien Bien Phu falls under Communist control
    Vietnam splits into two countries as a result of Geneva Conference
    SEATO is created
  • 1954 - CIA-directed coup in Guatemala
  • 1955 - Warsaw Pact signed
  • 1956 - Suez Crisis
  • 1957 - Eisenhower Doctrine created
    U.S.S.R.'s launch of Sputnik I and Sputnik II
  • 1958 - National Defense Education Act passed
  • 1959 - Fidel Castro came to power and made Cuba a satellite for U.S.S.R.
  • 1960 - American U-2 spy plane shot down by U.S.S.R.

Joseph McCarthy

  • Senator Joseph McCarthy was a Senator from Wisconsin
  • accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of hiring 205 Communist party members into U.S. State Department
  • his speech brought lots of attention, though he failed to name a single person
  • accused Democrats and powerful government officials for being traitors, including General George Marshall
  • attacked U.S. Army, which led to the army fighting back on TV
  • allegations became so foolish to public, they dropped it
  • finally kicked out of Senate
  • died of alcoholism on May 2, 1957
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desegregation in the south

  • Sweatt v. Painter (1950) - separate schools for blacks were ruled to be unequal
  • In December of 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in "whites only" section on bus
  • Little Rock Crisis - Governor Orval Faubus (Arkansas) wanted National Guard to prevent 9 black students from attending Little Rock Central High School
  • Eisenhower got the troops to escort them to school instead
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (May 1954) - ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and unequal
  • Montgomery Buss Boycott - Martin Luther King Jr. sparked bus boycott and nonviolent ways of resisting government
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957 - created permanent Civil Rights Commission

republicanism policies

  • transferred control of offshore drillings from federal government to state governments
  • reduced military funding from Truman's ginormous military buildup
  • cancellation of the "Indian New Deal" (only lasted a few years)
  • approved of start-up of small private companies to maintain a small federal government and get rid of large public companies (TVA)
  • New Deal programs still in existence, such as Social Security, unemployment insurance, labor and farm programs
  • supported Interstate Highway Act of 1956 - $27 billion plan to lay 42,000 miles of highways (benefited trucking, automobile, oil, and travel agencies; created jobs; more, passes under Eisenhower; pollution)
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Start of Vietnam War

  • in fear of starting another war with Asia, Eisenhower didn't aid French at first
  • finally agreed after Diem regime agreed to make social reforms
  • negotiated arms-control agreement with USSR, which led to Soviets withdrawing from Austria in May 1955
  • Suez Crisis - Pres. Nasser of Egypt nationalized Suez Canal after Secretary of State Dulles withdrew offer for dam
  • Eisenhower refused to aid Britain and France with oil during Suez Crisis
  • Joseph Stalin denounced by Nikita Khrushchev in 1956
  • U.S. limited Hungarian immigration to 30,000 people as violence worsened in Asia
  • Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957 - U.S. promised military and economic aid to Middle Eastern countries threatened by communists
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Space Race

  • Soviets launched Sputnik I on October 4, 1957
  • Sputnik II was launched a month later
  • Eisenhower created National Aeronautics and Spaces Administration (NASA)
  • U.S. launched satellite into space in Feb. 1958
  • National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) was created in late 1958
  • Used $887 million for education loans and grants