Language Arts 6th

What I learned this year! By: Katelyn

Chapter 1:Sentence or sentence fragment

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.


EX. My name is Katelyn, and i love to learn about the ocean.

Subject

The subject tells who or what the sentence is about.

Ex: Milo, eats his food.

The subject is Milo.

( Milo is a dog)

Simple Subject

The simple subject, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Ex. Bella is my best friend.

Best friend is the simple subject because it tells what the sentence is about. I am talking about my best friend.

Predicate

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

Ex. Kennedy called Katelyn.

called Katelyn would be the predicate because it is telling the reader what Kennedy did.

Simple predicate or verb

The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate.

Ex. The cat cleaned herself

cleaned herself would be the simple predicate or verb

Compound subject

A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

Ex. Claire and Bella both like to dance.

Claire, Bella would be the compound subject

Compound Verb

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.

Ex. The dolphin missed the hoop when it went to jump, but the crowd cheered anyway.

Declarative sentence

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

Ex. Kennedy is a good softball player.

Imperative sentence

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

Ex. Clean up your messy room!

Interrogative sentence

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

Ex. How did Mallory do on her report card?

Exclamatory sentence

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

Ex. My mom got me tickets to a Justin Bieber concert!

Chapter 2:Noun

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex. My family and I went to Disney World.

Pronoun

A Pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Ex. Katelyn likes the the movie Zootopia

She likes the movie Zootopia

Adjective

An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Ex. That sloth is slow and cute.

Verb: Chapter 3

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.

Ex. The tornado is moving quickly.

Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Ex. The construction workers are slowly building that house.

Preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

Ex. Down, below the volcano is hot lava.

Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.

Ex. Gabby's braid is very good, but Lucy's braid is better.


The way a word is used in a sentence determines what part of speech it is.

Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

Ex. Aha! I found the treasure.

Adjective phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

Ex. There were three crabs on the beach.

Adverb phrase

A prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
Ex. The man picked up the cripple man with a stretcher.

Clause

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

Ex. Katelyn came home after school.

The whole sentence would be the clause.

Independent clause

An independent ( or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Ex. After Jonathan fed the chickens, he did his homework.

Subordinate clause

A subordinate ( or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex. Unless you come on time.

The whole thing is a subordinate clause.

Adjective clause

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

Ex. When I was a kid I had chubby cheeks.

Adverb clause

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Ex. Since the turtle was slow and steady, he won the race.

Simple sentence

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clause.

Ex. My sister belongs to my mother and father.

Compound sentence

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word.

Ex. Julia likes Kevin, but Kevin does not like Julia.

Complex sentence

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

Ex. He made a sketch of the layout before he planted his garden.

The whole thing would be a complex sentence.

Compound- complex sentence

A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound-complex sentence.

Ex. Oran raked up the leaves that had fallen from the trees, and Bella picked up branches.

the whole sentence is the compound-complex sentence

Complement

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb,

Ex. Bella got a new puppy.

the whole sentence is the complement

Direct Object

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Ex. Mallory bought a new phone.

Indirect Object

An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done.

Ex. The family brought the letter to Alex , who works at the zoo.

Subject complement

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.

Ex. That chicken smells so good.

Predicate nominatives

A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Ex. My sister became a marine biologist.

Predicate adjective

A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

Ex. By 12:00 a.m., I was very tired.

Indefinite pronouns

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone,everything , neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.

Ex. Has one of the hamsters broke its leg.

More indefinite pronouns

  • Use a plural pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns both, few, many, and several.
  • Ex.Both of the birds had hidden their nests well.

More indefinite pronouns

  • The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural,depending on their meaning in a sentence.
  • Ex. None of the cereal has lost its crunch.

More indefinite pronouns

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
  • Ex. Either Miguel or Randall has his paintings on display.

More indefinite pronouns

  • Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
  • Ex. Have Chelsea and Susan tried on their new outfits?

Chapter 7 Principal Parts

The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and he past participle.

Ex. ( this is an example of the past) They took their dog to the vet last Monday.

Regular Verb

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or-ed to the base form.

Ex. Adam and Eve sinned, causing everyone else in the world to have original sin.

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Ex. UL have won their game again today!

Tense

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb.

Ex. I wear converse all the time.

Chapter 8: Pronoun as Subject

Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb

Ex. I walked to school.


Use the subject form for a pronoun that is a predicate nominative.

Ex. The next singer is she.


Use the object form for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.

Ex. The answer surprised us.


Use the object form for a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.

Ex. Scott handed me a note.


Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a preposition.

Ex. beside us.

Chapter 9:

Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns different.

Ex. The green monster ate us all.


Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.

Ex. The dog next door, barks very loudly.


The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive degree is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made.

Ex. Shawn runs quickly.


The comparative degree is used when two things are being compared.

Ex. Which of the two horses jumped more gracefully?


The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.

Ex. Which member of the team runs most quickly?


The modifiers good and well have different uses. Use good to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Ex. The farmers had a good crop this year.


Use well to modify a verb.

Ex. The day started well


Use adjectives, not adverbs, after linking verbs.

Ex. Did Chris seem sad to you.


Avoid using double comparisons.

Ex. Nonstandard: That was the actor's most scariest role

Standard: That was the actor's scariest role.


Avoid using double negatives.

Ex. Nonstandard: Sheila did not tell no one her idea.

Standard: Sheila did not tell anyone her idea, or Sheila told no one her idea.


Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.

Ex. The singer gave a radio interview for her fans from Brazil.

Ex.