The Dessert

revitalization

Hebrew

Hebrew, used to write most of Old Testament of Bible. Use of Hebrew waned in 4th century AD, but still used in Jewish religious services State of Israel established in 1948 and Hebrew became an official language Problem: no Hebrew words for things such as “cars, airplanes, computers” etc. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda took on the task of “inventing” 4000 new Hebrew words and the creation of a modern Hebrew dictionary

Revival of Celtic Languages

Recent efforts have prevented the disappearance of Celtic languages. Britain’s 1988 Education Act made Welsh language training a compulsory subject in all schools in Wales, and Welsh history and music have been added to the curriculum. The number of people fluent in Irish Gaelic has grown in recent years as well, especially among younger people. An Irish-language TV station began broadcasting in 1996. A couple of hundred people have now become fluent in the formerly extinct Cornish language, which was revived in the 1920s.

Ainu

The Ainu Language of the indigenous Ainu people of northern Japan is identified by Japanese scholars as a "dying language" since the 1920s. A 2006 survey of the hokkaido Ainu concluded that only 4.6% of Ainu surveyed were able to converse in or "speak a little" Ainu. As of 2001, Ainu was not taught in any elementary or secondary schools in Japan, but was offered at some language universities in Hokkaido, as well as at Tokyo's chiba university. An Ainu language radio station was established in Hokkaido in 2001. The work of researcher Kayano Shigeru has been to revival of Ainu, including the recording of the Ainu stories. Shigeru also began the Nibutani Ainu Language School in 1983, the first Ainu school in Japan

Conflict of the remergence

In 1913 , the Company for Aiding German Jews wished to establish an institution of higher education for engineering and insisted it should be instructed in German. The whole of the Jewish community rose up against this and forced the group to admit defeat, leading to the founding of Israel's famous institute of technology. This incident is seen as a milestone in the transformation of Hebrew into the official language of Israel.