The Cardiovascular System

Courtenay Parker

Overall Blood Charactoristics

  • Plasma= 55% of total blood volume

-91% water

-7% Blood proteins

-2% Nutrients

  • Cellular components= 45% of total blood volume

-Buffy Coat (White blood cells)

-Red Blood cells (RBC's)

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How Much Blood Is In Our Body?

  • Adults: 4-6 liters of blood (1.2 to 1.5 gallons)
  • 7-9% of total body weight.
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Where is blood produced?

-Red Bone Marrow


What controls the production of blood in the body?

-Erythropoeitin

Plasma

What does it look like?

-Plasma is the liquid part of blood

-Plasma contains many different types of cells and cell fragments. (formed elements)

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-Contain chemicals that are necessary for survival- (nutrients, oxygen, and salts.)

-Keep cell content in and foreign material out to maintain homeostasis.

Why are people paid to donate plasma?

-Albumin is found in plasma- facilitates movement of fluid throughout body.

-Some people can't make albumin, making it more valuable.

-Much longer process

How is plasma separated?
-Centrifugation: separates different density components. (plasma will migrate to the top)
Plasma fractionation: Used to separates individual proteins in plasma.

Who is plasma given to?
- Patients with diseases like leukemia, people receiving chemotherapy, and babies with severe infections.

Red Blood Cells

  • Round, semi-flat cells with an indented center.
  • Globular
  • Made in red bone marrow
  • no nucleus
  • filled with hemoglobin
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  • Hemoglobin carries oxygen throughout the body.
  • Blood cell production depends on the body's need for oxygen.


Hemoglobin test

-Measures the amount of hemoglobin in your blood.

Hematocrit is the proportion of your total blood volume that contains red blood cells.


A hematocrit test is done using a sample of your blood to see if you have too few or too many red blood cells.

1) blood sample gets put into a centrifuge (spins blood very quickly)

2) In centrifuge, blood separates into three parts (plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells)

3) Technician can determine what proportion of cells are red blood cells.

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Anemia

-Condition that occurs when your blood lacks healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.


1) Iron deficiency anemia- when your blood's iron stores run low.

-Treatment: taking iron supplements or eating iron-rich foods

2) Hemolytic anemia- red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood stream before their normal life span is over.

-Treatment: Blood transfusions, medications, surgery.

3) Hemorrhagic anemia- reduced delivery of oxygen to the tissues

-Treatment: Injections of albumin or plasma, transfusions of fresh, whole blood.

4) Sickle cell anemia- body makes crescent shaped blood cells.

-Treatment: No widely available cure-- medication and fluids used to treat pain.

5) Pernicious anemia- body does not have enough healthy red blood cells

-Treatment: shots of vitamin B12 once a month or taking vitamin B12 supplements.

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Polycythemia- Increased level of circulating blood cells in the bloodstream.

-Causes: abnormalities in red blood cell production, sleep apnea, certain tumors, inherited genetic mutations.

-Treatments: Depends on the cause. Medication can be used, treatment of underlying conditions.

Donating Blood:

  • Approximately one pint of blood is drawn.
  • Must wait at least eight weeks between donations.
  • Red blood cells can last 42 days
  • frozen plasma can last one year
  • platelets last five days

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White blood cells

-Much larger, nucleated cells.

-Produced in the red bone marrow

-4.8-11,000/mm3 (one drop of blood)

-The buffy coat in centrifuged blood.

Characteristics:

-Phagocytes (engulf foreign material and digest it)

-Chemotaxis (cells are drawn to an area by chemical release)

-Diapedesis (movement of cells through vessels and tissues)

Function:


-Can produce antibodies against bacteria and viruses.

-Help maintain the body's immune function.

-Travel throughout the body and destroy bacteria.

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Five Types:


1)Granulocytes

-short lived

-contain granules

-three types

1. Neutrophile

  • Most common (60% of total)
  • Have segmented nucleus (usually 3 lobes)
  • Seen in acute bacterial infections

2. Eosinophil

  • Larger than Neutrophil
  • Bilobed nucleus
  • Makes up 2% of total number
  • fights parasitic infections (worms) and breaks down antibody complex

3. Basophil

  • Rarest cell of all (.0004%)
  • Bilobed nucleus
  • Involved in inflammation

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2) Agranulocytes

-long lived

-seen in chronic infections

1.Lymphocytes

  • Second most numerous (31%)
  • Round nucleus with very little cytoplasm
  • Very long life and produce immunity
  • Non-phagocytic, fight viruses.

2. Monocyte

  • Called macrophages when in the blood.
  • largest of all white blood cells
  • Kidney shaped nucleus
  • Highly phagocytic (big eaters)
  • Seen in chronic infections
Conditions:


1. Leukopenia: low count of white blood cells in the blood stream

Treatment- steroids, cytokine, chemotherapy, multivitamins that contain copper and zinc.


2. Leukemia: Cancer of the blood cells. Bone marrow makes abnormal blood cells called leukemia cells. Grow fast and don't stop growing when they should.

Treatment- induction therapy, consolidation therapy, maintenance therapy.


3.Mononucleosis: Caused by EBV. Can be spread through mucus or saliva and will cause fatigue for weeks or months.

Treatment- self-care at home, coritcosteroids can be used to reduce swelling.


4. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that forms in a cell called a plasma cell. Causes cancer cells to accumulate in bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells.

Treatment- targeted therapy, biological therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, stem cell transplants, radiation therapy.

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Thrombocytes

1. Platelets

-Produced in red bone marrow

-cells are non-living

-pieces break off from parent cell

-200-500,000/mm3

Function:

-Initiate a blood clot (Hemostasis)


1. Vascular spasm

2. Platelet plug (temporary--not strong enough)

3.Clotting cascade also called coagulation

*proper clotting requires a healthy liver.

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Hemophilia:

Blood cannot clot normally because it lacks proper blood clotting proteins. Bleeding occurs longer than if blood clotted normally.

Treatment- plasma infusions, injection of (DDAVP) in vein, infusion of recombinant.

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Blood thinners:

1. Warfarin- Used to prevent heart attacks, stroke, and blood clots in veins or arteries. Lengthen time it takes to form a clot. (Anticoagulant)

2. Heparin- Used to treat blood clots in veins, arteries or lung. Also used before surgery to reduce risk of blood clots. Lengthen time it takes to form a clot. (Anticoagulant)

3. Aspirin- Prevent blood cell (platelets) from clotting. (Antiplatelet)

Sources

1) "Hemphilia." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 26 Sept. 2014. Web. 14 Mar. 2015
2)"Mononucleosis." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2015
3)"Leukemia." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2015.
4)"Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count): Symptoms & Causes." MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
5)"Hemorrhagic Anemia." TheFreeDictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
6)"Anemia Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diet, and Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
7)"Heparin (Injection) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects - Drugs.com." Heparin (Injection) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects - Drugs.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
8)"Aspirin Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions - Drugs.com." Aspirin Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions - Drugs.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.
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