Chapter 3

Breanne, Kaya, Tia

Nature , Nurture, and Human Diversity


natural selection- the principle that among the range of inherited trait variation, those that led to increase reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to generations

mutation- a random error in gene replication; the source of all genetic diversity

evolutionary psychology- the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

heritability- the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

fraternal twins- twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs

Peer Influence- the behavior of children seeking to fit in various groups by doing things there peers do.

Cultural Influence- historical, geographical, and familial factors that affect assessment and intervention processes.

Gender Roles- how males and females should think,speak,dress, and interact within the society.

Adoption Studies

  • When biological parents do not part take in the care for the child, a child given to the state to be adopted.
  • Once a child is adopted, one expects them to be like the parent they live with but studies show that genetics are stronger than cultural surroundings.
  • Adopted children inherit their personality traits from environmental and biological influences

Twin Studies

- studies show that identical twins have more similar personalities than that of fraternal twins

- this may be due to identical twins having the exacts same genetics or the fact that identical twins are more likely to be treated alike than fraternal twins

-There have been studies done on separated identical twins that show that although they were separated at birth, they both have identical tendencies


- heritability is at the center of the nature and nurture debate

- chances of heritability does not mean that a certain percentage of any trait comes directly from a certain attribute and another percentage from another attribute

- environment and genetics both determine any trait available including things such as height, personality, and intelligence

Peer Influence

- parents and peers are complementary influences in children's lives

- Children always want to share their interests/attitudes to other group of peers.

- peers are influential in areas as learning to cooperate with others,achieving popularity and finding the style of interaction with people of similar age.

Cultural Influences

- culture is set of behaviors,idea, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

- Cultures based on individualism like the United States, Canada, and Western Europe value personal independence and achievements.

- Newcomers to a culture are different from their own experience culture shock by lack of knowledge of the culture.

- Cultural differences, our shared capacity for culture is a common thread running throughout the human species