The Asian World- Ch. 8 project
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Genghis Khan paid lots of attention to trade with neighboring states. Altan State was the main gateway to expand trade relationships with foreign countries. Trade between Mongolia and China was limited only by a border. Genghis Khan was interested in establishing trade and economical relationship with merchants. He protected the Silk Road route, fought against robbers and their gangs and established camps for merchants.
In 1279 one of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Kublai Khan completed the conquest of the Song and established a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan. Kublai Khan ruled until his death in 1294, established his capital at Khanbalik- the city of Khan. Today the city of Khan is known as Beijing.
The Mongols were into poetry. Li Bo and Du Fo were two of the most popular poets during the Tang era. "Quiet Night Thoughts" has been memorized by schoolchildren for centuries.
During the Song and Mongol dynasties, landscape painting reached its high point. Influenced by Daoism, artists went into the mountains to fin the Dao, or Way, in nature.
- Genghis Khan produced a highly efficient army with remarkable discipline, organization, toughness, dedication, loyalty and military intelligence. The Mongol armies were one of the most feared forces in the history of battle.
- The Mongols made a postal system called Yam, meaning checkpoint.
- The Golden Horde, a large kingdom, that was established by Genghis Khan's grandson, Batu Khan, in 1251.
Interesting Facts/ Figures
- History says that Mongol men were fearsome and mighty conquerors and the women were often ignored.
- The women kept the economy going and held some of the highest positions.
- Mongols were wanderers.
- Mongols fought on horseback whenever they could.
- The most common long-distance weapon was the composite bow, a small but sturdy weapon that had twice the range of the English longbow.
The people were divided between a small aristocratic class known as the rulers and a large population of rice farmers, artisans, and household servants.
Prince Shotoku Taishi, a Yamato prince, tried to unify the various clans so that the Japanese could more effectively resist an invasion by the chinese. He wanted a centralized government under a supreme ruler. His main purpose was to limit the powers of the aristocrats and enhance the Yamto ruler's (his own) authority.
In Japanese art and architecture, landscape serves as an important means of expression.
- Buddhism reached Japan in the 6th century but it was not until the Nara period that it was able to gain solid acceptance.
- Japanese historical literature was produced during the Nara period.
- The Heian period is considered on of the high points in Japanese history.
- Ancient warriors of Japan were known as Samurai.
- In 500, Japan adopted the Chinese alphabet.
Was split into 70 different states that fought constantly.
The state of political disunity in India was one reason for Islam's success.
Between 500 and 1500, most Indians lived on the land and farmed their own tiny plots. These people usually paid a share of their harvest each year to a landlord, who in turn sent part of the payment to the local ruler. The landlord was basically a tax collector for the kink, who in theory owned all the land in his state. Rents paid by farmers funded the sumptuous lifestyle, the wars, and the grand temples of the rich and high born.
Internal trade within India probably declined during this period, primarily because of the fighting among the many states of India.
Timur Lenk: Was the ruler of a Mongol state based in Samarqand, which is located to the north of the Pamirs. Timur Lenk seized power in 1396 and immediately launched a program of conquest. Timur Lenk placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea under his authority and the occupied Mesopotamia. The death of Timur Lenk removed a major menace from the various states of the Indian subcontinent but this did not last long.
During this period...
- Religious architecture developed from caves to new, magnificent structures.
- Indian architects built monumental Hindu temples from the 8th century on.
- Each temple contained a central shrine surrounded by a tower, a hall for worshipers, an entryway, and a porch, all set in a rectangular courtyard.
- The greatest example of Hindu temple art of this period are found at Khajuraho.
- The use of prose in fiction was well established in India by the 6th and 7th centuries.
- One of the greatest masters of Sanskirt prose was Dandin, a 7th century author. Dandin wrote The Adventures of the Ten Princes. In the story, Dandin relates the exploits of 10 princes as they search for love and power.
- Dandin's powers of observation, details of everyday life, and humor gave his writing much vitality.
- They built 80 temples in the 10th century and 20 of them still stand today.
- The use of prose fiction was established in India by the 6th and 7th centuries.
Interesting Facts/ Figures
- India was divided into about 70 states, which fought constantly.
- Rajputs were Hindu warriors that lead a resistance against the advances of Mahmud and his successors into northern India.