Renaissance World Views
CP A English III
Introduction to Renaissance World Views
The Protestant Reformation occurred in the early 1500's throughout Europe, starting first in England. The Reformation is a protest against the Roman Catholic Church (Cook, 233). In this era the Catholic Church had a lot of control and say over every social, economic, and political decision. They where a government institution and used their power as so. The church and Pope's opinion was extremely valued and seeked as most people had a connection with the church. However, one German monk decided to challenge this and led the way for a movement that will ultimately change the church's power in the world forever. Monk Martin Luther, in 1577, attacked the sales of indulgences and their unjust ways in the church (The Protestant Reformation). He called into question most sacraments questioning their authority and graces. Also he turned many people's opinion and authority of the Pope sour.
Henry VIII was the man power behind the start and push of this reformation. He helped move this reform due to his desire to have his marriage annulled (Cook, 233). The Roman Catholic Church refused to allow him annulment and he decided to break off from the church and become the leader of a state church and ignored the Pope's authority (The Protestant Reformation).
The effects this split in the church had on the world was tremendous. The bible was translated from Latin into worldwide tongues, everyone could read. This helped spread Christianity throughout the world. Indulgences were abolished and the education that was given within the church became less corrupt and more influential (Concordia).
Map of Europe
Fig. 1 Protestant Reformation Map
Fig. 2 Protestant Refomation
Luther fighting the Church
Fig. 3 Protestant Reformation
Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake was born around 1540 in England and was a great explorer. (Francis…) He was one of the first to sail around the globe. He sailed along the Pacific coast to find a place between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which is now the San Francisco Bay today, in 1579. (“The Origins…”) He also helped others have an upper hand in naval powers over Spain and other nations.
Sir Francis Drake was made an officer by John Hawkins in 1567 during a big slave-trading trip. (Francis…) He then eventually got to direct the Judith and dropped off the slaves in Africa. They were caught by a Spanish ship and they wrecked most ships except Drake’s and another smaller vessel which escaped. After this Sir Francis Drake dedicated his life to the Spanish war.
He had a journey in 1570 where he was looking for how the Spaniards received their different items at port. He tried to take Nombre de Dios but he got hurt and lost him. In the end he returned with Spain’s gold from their train he obstructed. When he got back though, Queen Elizabeth I was mad and embraced at him because she wanted peace with Spain. After that he went to Ireland bt returned to England when Spain’s relationship with England got worse. He took five ships, one being the Golden Hind, and sailed through the Strait of Magellan and the shores of Terra Australis Incognita. He left for the Atlantic Ocean in 1577 and when he entered the Pacific only the Golden Hind was left. He went the wrong way because of terrible winds and realized Terra Australis wasn't here. He traveled around and got directions to go across the Pacific Ocean and took treasure and destroyed Spain’s ships. He finally got to Plymouth in 1580 and many admired him and he got knighted a year after. He also became mayor that year and got married.
Drake is well-known for being in the Spanish Armada. He had a lower post on the ship with some others. He suggested and was allowed to strike and either destroyed or took 37 enemy ships. When he destroyed those ships the Spanish Armada needed to be fixed up but was still sailable and left in 1588. Drake did much to help fighting but he never thought himself better than any of the other commanders. The Armada was defeated and Drake faced his first defeat in 1589 and went to Lisbon. After his defeat he didn't go to sea for another 5 years and stayed in Plymouth.
He got called by the Queen and was sent to work with Hawkins, who didn't got along, and they both were treated as equals. Drake said they should first go to the Canary Islands but their plans got revealed to the Spaniards. So when they went there their had upped the defenses and couldn't take the city. He then tried to take Nombre de Dios, like before but was ambushed and forced to retreat. He was upset the trip was a failure and sailed around without purpose till he died in 1596 and was buried at sea.
Sir Francis Drake
Fig. 4 Francis Drake (Drake Biography).
Fig. 5 Sir Francis Drake (Drake's route around the world).
Fig. 6 Sir Francis Drake and the Circumnavigation (Sir Francis Drake).
Galileo played a major role in the scientific revolution during the 1500s. He used mathematics in his work to experiment with mechanics and experimental physics. Galileo was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy and was the oldest of seven children. His family was pretty wealthy and at a high social status but that started to decline over the years.
In 1586 dropped out of the University of Pisa and returned home and began studying independently. In 1589 Galileo started to give mathematical lectures at the same university he used to attend. 3 years later he received a more prestigious job teaching mathematics at the University of Padua. During his time teaching there, he also invented a military compass to be used in artillery raids and army formations, but his work in astronomy and motion is why we still talk about Galileo today (Galileo)
In 1604 Galileo noticed a new star in the sky. Back then, the world was seen as created by God and made perfect (Galielo). This got Galileo thinking, how can something just appear if the world is already perfect? With the help of the Polish astronomer Copernicus and the discovery of a new eye glass in Venice, Galileo was able to invent a breakthrough instrument, the telescope (Glencoe Literature). “With his new device, Galileo discovered many new things: that the Moon was not smooth, but had many craters and mountains; that Jupiter had four moons, thus disproving the theory that only Earth was orbited by a natural satellite; and that the phases of Venus could not be explained correctly within the traditional Earth-centered model of the universe” (Galileo). The invention of the telescope was Galileo’s biggest contribution to science.
In 1632, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican. A controversial book, it got Galileo in a lot of trouble. The book first got banned and then Galileo was put on trial for heresy. After a five month long trial, he was found guilty for believing "false doctrine, contrary to the Holy and Divine Scriptures." His punishment was the outlaw of the book and jail time. After his sentence was over, he spent the rest of his life on house arrest and died on January 8, 1642 in Arcetri, Italy (Galileo).
Fig. 7 New Scientist (Galileo).
Fig. 8 Jaggard, Victoria (Galileo Telescope at 400).
Fig. 9 The Telegraph (Italian Astronomer)
The Mayflower symbolically accompanies all immigrant ships to American shores "in a dream" that was also the dream of its original passengers. They brought big influence for the world.. The Mayflower was shipping during the Renaissance time. Most people think that the Renaissance is ideological revolutionary movement in Europe, America is not a part of the movement. if knowing the real American history , we will find the Renaissance relations with the United States is very big, you can say no Renaissance no today’s United States. early immigrants in the United States had been influenced to some extent by Renaissance
The Mayflower was launched in 1615, On September 6, 1620, the ship carrying, including male,female and children' about 102 pilgrims at Plymouth form England, and they established the first colony in America. They are people who after Columbus discovered the new world the first group of immigrants, is already after the early enlightenment and the reformation of the Europeans. Those Americans influenced by Enlightenment had been no longer humans, who had not been conservative any more and had been more likely to accept new thinkings. Their economic thoughts have already changed from the bible. Abraham was promoted that people only need a little land for exist. Mercantilist economic thinking deeply rooted in the early American people's mind. During the European transition to modern society, the union of citizens and royal powers was the common way of building modern countries. However, in Italy of Renaissance, industry and commerce was prosperous and citizens are powerful; one royal power ruling the entire Italy did not exist; new bigwigs like merchants and financiers dominated cities instead of feudal noblemen. As a result, citizens obviously played a great role in politics or government
All in all, in the course of renaissance, all over the world has big changed from its purport-----people first, meanwhile a mass of amazing artwork, poems and literary masterpiece have been created. They are treasure in the history of mankind.