Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a state in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone

Causes of Hypothyroidism

Iodine deficiency is often considered as the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide but it can be caused by many other factors. It can result from the lack of a thyroid hormone secretion.


Levels of Hypothyroidism

Primary

It is caused by the thyroid gland. It happens when the gland stops producing enough hormones due to iodine deficiency. It is the most common level of hypothyroidism.

Signs and Symptoms

Early


Cold intolerance, increased sensitivity to cold

Constipation

Weight gain and water retention

Bradycardia (low heart rate – fewer than sixty beats per minute)

Fatigue

Decreased sweating

Muscle cramps and joint pain

Dry, itchy skin

Thin, brittle fingernails

Rapid thoughts

Depression

Poor muscle tone (muscle hypotonia)


Late


Goiter

Slow speech and a hoarse, breaking voice – deepening of the voice can also be noticed.

Dry puffy skin, especially on the face

Abnormal menstrual cycles

Low basal body temperature

Thyroid-related depression

Infertility in both men and women

Mood swings

Acute fatigue syndrome

Stress



Uncommon


Impaired memory

Sluggish reflexes

Hair loss

Anemia caused by impaired haemoglobin synthesis (decreased EPO levels), impaired intestinal iron and folate absorption or B12 deficiency from pernicious anemia

Difficulty swallowing

Shortness of breath with a shallow and slow respiratory pattern

Increased need for sleep

Irritability and mood instability

Deafness

Enlarged tongue