8th Grade Language

What I Learned This Year By: Caroline Hernandez

Chapter 1: The Sentence

The Sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.

A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point.

(Ex): Grace loves chocolate ice cream.


The Subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

To find the subject, ask who or what is doing something or about whom or what something is being said.

(Ex): Grace loves chocolate ice cream. / Grace is the subject


The Simple Subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The Complete Subject consists of all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. The sentence is about. The simple subject is part of the complete subject.

(Ex.): Grace was ate the ice cream. / Grace is the simple subjects


The Predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

The complete subject consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and complete its meaning.

(Ex.): Grace loves to eat pizza. / eat pizza is the subject.


The Compound Subject consists of two or more connected subjects that have the same verb.

(Ex.): Grace and Nouria went walk.


The Compound Verb consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject.

A connecting word - usually and, or, or, but - is used between the verbs.

Chapter 1: Types of Sentences

Declarative sentence: makes a statement and ends with a period.

(Ex) - Grace went to the store to get ice cream.


Imperative sentence: gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

(Ex) - Go close the fridge before the ice cream melts.


Interrogative sentence: asks a question and ends with a question mark.

(Ex) - Did Grace eat all of the ice cream?


Exclamatory sentence: shows excitement or strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

(Ex) - Grace ate all the ice cream! I cant believe it!

Chapter 2: Parts of Speech

A Noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or an idea.

(Ex.): girl, boy, Grace, Florida, cake, ice cream (etc..... )


A Compound Noun is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.

The parts of a compound noun may be written as one word, as separate words, or as hyphenated word.

(Ex.): basketball, baseball, doghouse, mother-in-law (etc.....)


A Common Noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas.

A common noun generally does not begin with a capital letter.

(Ex.): girl, boy, tree, dog, cat, river, country, city


A Proper Noun names a particular person, place, thing or idea.

A proper noun begins with a capital letter.

(Ex.): Grace, Courtney, Lauren,


A Concrete Noun names a person, place, or thing that can perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell.)

(Ex.): telephone, popcorn, cake, teacher


An Abstract Noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.

(Ex.): love, humor, self-confidence, beauty


A Collective Noun is a word that names a group.

(Ex.): flock, litter, pack, crew, family, batch

The Pronoun

A Pronoun is a word used in place of one or more pronouns.

(Ex.): Grace is a great friend, she is funny, nice, and awesome. She wrote this sentence. (pronouns - she, she)

A Personal Pronouns refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person)

(Ex.): Grace got in trouble and they all crowded around her.

(personal pronoun- them

A Reflexive Pronoun refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition.

(Ex.): Grace wrote herself a note

(reflexive pronoun- herself)

A Intensive Pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.

(Ex.): Grace designed the costumes herself

(intensive pronoun- herself)

A Demonstrative Pronoun points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea

(Ex.): These, That, These, and Those

A Interrogative Pronoun introduces a question

(Ex.): Which, What, Who, Whom, Whose

A Relative Pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

(Ex.): That, Which, Who, Whom, Whose

A Indefinite Pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named

(Ex.): All, Another, Any, Anybody, Anyone, Anything, Both

An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun

(Ex.): Stone House, Rushing River, Tired women

A Article are used adjectives and they are a,an, and, the

A Demonstrative Adjective is this, that, these, and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are called demonstrative adjectives, When they take place of nouns or pronouns, they are called that.

(Ex:) DId Grace win this or that?

A Proper Adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.

(Ex:) New Jersey coast, Canadian citizen

Chapter 3: Parts of Speech Overview

The Verb is a word used to express action or state of being. There are three types of verbs. 1. A helping verb, 2. action/linking verb, 3.transitive or intransitive verbs

(Ex:) Am, are, be, been ,being, is, was, were

An Action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity,

(Ex.) Grace wrote a lot of books

A Linking Verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. The noun, pronoun, or adjective that is connected to the subject by a linking verb completes the meaning of the verb.

(Ex:) Grace is one of the finalists

A Transitive Verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing or idea.

(Ex:) Grace brought flowers

An Intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object.

(Ex:) Grace read inside the whole day.

An Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

(Ex:) Grace ran slow

- Many Adverbs end with ly

A Preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of preposition, to another word.

(Ex:) Grace ran besides me

The Prepositional Phrase

- All together, the preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object are called a Prepositional Phrase

A Conjunction is a word used to join words of groups of words

(Ex:) Be fast but careful

- Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way.

(Ex:) Both....and , either........or, not only.........but also

An Interjection is a word to express emotion.

(Ex:) Oh! you surprised me.

Determining Parts of Speech

- The way a word is used in a sentence determines what part of speech it is.

(Ex:) Each was painted blue - PRONOUN

Each ornament was painted blue - ADJECTIVE

Chapter 4: Complements

Recognizing Complements

- A complement is a word or a word group that completes the meaning or a verb

(Ex:) Grace brought (what?) - INCOMPLETE

Grace brought sandwiches - COMPLETE

Objects of Verbs

- Direct objects and Indirect objects complete the meaning of transitive verbs.

Direct Objects

- A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

(Ex:) Grace brought sandwiches (The noun sandwiches receives the action of brought)

Indirect Objects

- An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects.

(Ex:) Grace showed the class her collection of dance awards.

Subject Complements

- A subject complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes the subject

(Ex:) The lemonade taste sour

Predicate Nominatives

- A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Predicate Adjective

- A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject

(Ex:) This chili taste spicy

Chapter 5: The Phrase

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

(Ex:) a message from the other members of the debate team

- The Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called object of preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

(Ex:) The Mississippi River flows through Mississippi

- The Adjective Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

(Ex:) Mrs.Grace is the one on the left.

- The Adverb Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.

(Ex:) Are you good at soccer.

Verbals and Verbal Phrases

A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals: the participle, the gerund, and the infinite.

The Participle

- A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.

(1)Present participle ends in-ing

(Ex:) The horses trotting past were not not frightened by the crowd.

(2)Most participles end in -d or -ed. Some past participles are irregularly formed.

(Ex:) The police officers searched the abandoned warehouse.

The Participle Phrase

- A participle phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.

(Ex:) Then, disgusted with the other duck, it pecked the mirror.

The Gerund

- A gerund is a verb from ending in- ing that is used as a noun.

SUBJECT skiing down that slope was fun

The Gerund Phrase

- A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun.

(Ex:) Having a part time job may interfere with your schoolwork.

The Infinitive

- An infinitive is a verb from that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives being with to.

(Ex:) The camel knelt at the pool to drink

The Infinitive Phrase

- An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

(Ex:) Peanuts and raisins are good snacks to take on a camping trip.

Appositives and Appositive Phrases

An appositive is a noun or a pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it.

(Ex:) I chose one person,her, to organize the volunteers.

An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.

(Ex:) Officer Webb,one of the security guards, caught the burglar.

Chapter 6: The Clause

What is a Clause?

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

(Ex:) When she lived in Paris / sub-she, verb-gathered

The Independent Clause

An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.

(Ex): The sun set an hour ago / sub-sun, verb-set

The Subordinate Clause

A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

(Ex:) that I wanted / sub-I, verb-wanted

The Adjective Clause

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun

(Ex:) The blonde women

Relative Pronouns

An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun. It also relates an adjective clause to the word or words that clause modifies.

(Ex:) the magazine, which arrived in the mall today, is torn

The Adverb Clause

Unlike an adverb or an adverb phrase, an adverb clause has a subject and a verb.

(Ex:) He will leave in a few minutes

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

(Ex:) You may sit wherever you wish

The Noun Clause

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun.

(Ex:) Eager to please the speaker, we listened to whatever he said.

Chapter 7: Sentence Structure

What is Sentence Structure?

The structure of a sentence refers to the kinds and the number of clause it contains. The four kinds of sentences are simple. compound, complex, and compound-complex

(No Example)

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses

(Ex:) The hairstylist gave Latrice a new look. / sub-hairstylist, verb-gave

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clause.

(Ex:) According to legend, Betsy Ross made our first.

Complex Sentence

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

(Ex:) I feel like studying dance. / sub-I, verb-like

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

(Ex:) Yolanda began painting only two years ago, but / sub-Yolanda,verb- began

Chapter 8: Agreement

Number

Number is the form a word takes to indicate whether the word is singular or plural.

When a word refers to one person, place, thing, or idea, it is singular in number. When a word refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea, it is plural in number

(Ex:) egg, eggs, person, people, fox, foxes

Agreement of Subject and Verb

A verb should agree in number with its subject

(1) Singular subjects take singular verbs. (2) Plural subjects take plural verbs.

(Ex:) The dolphins leap playfully in the channel.

Problem in Agreement

Phrases and Clauses Between Subjects and Verbs

The number of a subject is not changing by a phrase or clause following the subject.

(Ex:) The distance between the two post is eight feet.

Indefinite Pronoun

The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody. anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, nothing, no one, one, somebody, someone and something

(Ex:) Everyone was invited to the celebration

The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, several.

(Ex:) Few know about the surprise

The indefinite pronouns, all, any, more, most, none, and some maybe be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.

(Ex:) All of the fruit looks ripe

Compound Subjects

Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.

(Ex:) Last year a library and a museum were built in our town

Singular subjects joined by or or nor

Singular subjects joined by or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb.

(Ex:) A pen or pencil is needed for this test

When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.

(Ex:) Neither the manager nor the employees want to close the store early.

Other Problems in Agreement

When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure the verb agrees with it.

(Ex:) There is an exciting ride at the fair.

The contractions don't and doesn't should agree with their subjects.

(Ex:) These gloves don't fit

A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence.

(Ex:) army, assembly, audience, class, club, committee, crowd, family

An expression of amount (a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction, for example) may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used.

(Ex:) Three years seems like a long time.

Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, movie, or painting) or the name of a country, city, or organization generally takes a singular verb.

(Ex:) Blue Lines is an early Georgia O'Keffe painting.

A verb agrees with its subject but not necessarily with a predicate nominative

(Ex:) The best time to visit is weekday morning

Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent

A pronoun should agree in both number and gender with its antecedent.

(Ex:) Bryan lost his book

Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor

(Ex:) Each of the men put on his hat.

Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by or or nor

(Ex:) Julio or Van will bring his football

Chapter 9: Using Verbs Correctly

Irregular Verbs: It forms a past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.

Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.

Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.

Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.

Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Examples:

Irregular- My friend went to the mall.

Verb Tense- Throughout the year i have saved money to buy a kitten

Consistency- When we think the time is right we go and confess what we did.

Passive- The cake was brought by a happy clown.

Active- The window was broken last night.


Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly

Case: Is a form of a noun or a pronoun that takes the place to show it's relationship to other words in a sentence.

The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.

A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.

The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.

An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.

Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.

Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.

Examples:

Case- Many of the people were outside waiting.

Nominative- Did you see them buy tickets for the game.

Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.


Chapter 11: Using Modifiers Correctly

Modifier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.

Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not all do.

Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.

Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.

Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Well: Use well to modify a verb.

Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.

Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.

Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.

Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.

Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives

Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.

Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.

Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.

Examples:

Modifier- Blake has made many good drawings in the past.

Adverb- You have an amazing.

Adjective- The lady ran so fast she hit a brick.

Linking Verbs- My .

Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.

Well- I do well is basketball.

Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse

Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.

Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.

Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.

Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.

Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.


Chapter 12: A Glossary of usage

Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.

A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.

An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.

Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.

Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.

Ain't: Means completley perpared.

A Lot : Should always be written in two words

As: See like, as

As If: To see as a thought

At: Do not use after where

Bad: Is an adjective

Badly: Is an adverb

Examples:

A- He was not considered a hero.

An- He was An external animal.

Accept- I accept your gift.

Exept- Everyone joined except the boys.