Sophia Brewer period 3
The Indian Subcontinent
After the Indian National Congress, in 1885, a political party made of mostly Hindus was formed to increase the rights of Indians. In 1906 a similar group was formed to increase rights for Islamic Indians. These movements didn't take off until 1919 after the Amritsar massacre, during which 819 Indians were killed during a peaceful protest. In the 1920's Gandhi became the leader, with his philosophy of civil disobedience and non-violent protests. Though Hindus and Muslims were working together against the British, there was tension between them. Gandhi worked to create peace between the two religions, but the Muslim League still had the idea of creating their own country, Pakistan.
Independence Won: Nations Two
After Britain granted India its independence, the Hindus and Muslims began to fight each other violently. There were two groups, one that wanted peace between the people, supported by Mohandas Gandhi, and another that wanted the separation of the people, supported by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. When the British officially gave India their independence in 1947, they split it up int three. India which was mostly Hindu, and Pakistan in two parts, east and west, both Muslim. Millions of citizens had to move after this split, which resulted in a butt load of death. Since then both India and Pakistan have become nuclear powers and continue to argue.
After World War II, Africans began to want their independence, like in India. The British in South Africa took control of the government and laws didn't allow for native Africans to vote. In 1912, educated Africans created the African National Congress, working toward rights for Africans. The rest of Africa soon followed their footsteps and in the 1950s Gamal Nasser over through the Egyptian king and created a republic. Egypt, after nationalizing industries, became a part of the Middle Easts conflicts. South of the Sahara, independence was harder to obtain due to the lack of education, and the robbing of the natural resources by the Europeans. Eventually all of Africa gained independence from Europe.