What is Responsible Design?

Responsible Design and Bacteriophage Therapy

What does it mean to be a responsible design?

A responsible design is an idea or plan that benefits the world economically, politically, socially, ethically, and culturally, yet can also be considered harmful to the world in these ways. However, the benefits outweigh the detriments.

How is bacteriophage therapy a responsible design?

Bacteriophage therapy is a medical process of injecting natural phages into the body in order to kill bacteria when the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. Through our research, it is evident that bacteriophage therapy is a responsible design because the benefits economically, politically, socially, ethically, and culturally are more important than the minor detriments.


  • Although underveloped countries do not have the money to build the offices needed for bacteriophage therapy, phages are natural; therefore, they are found virtually anywhere on earth. This makes the cost of bacteriophage therapy research cheap and available in any country, even developing nations. Anybody can get their hands on phages!
  • According to the FDA, it costs about $800 million to develop a new antibiotic. Bacteriophage therapy does not; therefore, we should use it more, especially with the growing epidemic of antibiotic resistance. The problem is that phages are difficult to patent because they are natural, which pushes pharmaceutical companies away from investing in bacteriophage therapy, even though it is cheaper. However, with enough advertisement and petition, bacteriophage therapy can become the next big treatment!


  • Many companies praise bacteriophage therapy for its effectiveness, along with no serious side effects ever recorded throughout history. Companies, even here in the United States, including Intralytix in Baltimore, Maryland, are working to promote bacteriophage therapy, although many worry that there is not enough information to continue with this therapy here in the U.S.. However, by combining our knowledge with the research of European countries, such as Russia and Georgia, who have been researching and using bacteriophage therapy for almost 100 years, bacteriophage therapy should be considered throughout the U.S..


  • Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to everyone, no matter your age, race, or gender. Bacteriophage therapy is an effective yet harmless way to treat multiple bacterial infections when antibiotics fail. Bacteriophage therapy treats anyone and everyone!


  • Phages do not harm the beneficial bacteria in the body because the phages are specifically targeted towards a harmful bacteria. Once the bacteria that is infecting a patient is known, scientists will find the phage that matches directly to only that bacteria, not any other. They refer to this as the one to one ("1:1") relationship, since only one phage matches to a specific bacteria. This way, no beneficial bacteria are harmed.
  • Finding the phages that match the harmful bacteria for treatment is quicker and cheaper than developing a new antibiotic, which may turn out to not work due to antibiotic resistance. Phages can overcome resistance because the phage evolves with the bacteria, allowing for the bacteria to never be resistant to the bacteriophage.
  • This process has been used for 100 years throughout Europe, and even for a short period in the U.S., until antibiotics were developed.
  • Although some are concerned about how the phages remain in your body for a period of time, no serious side effects or complications have been recorded throughout its 100 years of history.
  • One effect that has been recorded is that if the virus is killed but not flushed out of the body, then toxins will be released. However, this is extremely rare.


  • People belonging to a certain ethnic group where only natural substances can be ingested or taken into the body will be more open to participating in bacteriophage therapy because all phages are completely natural.
  • However, some cultures may be nervous to try this new type of therapy since it is not large in the U.S.. With a little bit of advertisement through pharmaceutical companies, bacteriophage therapy will be very popular throughout cultural masses who are used to being in a world full of Western medicine culture!
Based on research and evidence, bacteriophage therapy treats anyone with the same effectiveness and is a cheap, easy to find alternative to antibiotics when they fail, which is occurring frequently in society today. Bacteriophage therapy is a responsible design and should be used throughout the world!