Yalta Conference

Ryan Vezina

The Big Three

Backround

The Yalta Conference was the conference at Yalta in 1945 between United States President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Marshal Joseph Stalin. They gathered to discuss the unconditional surrender of Germany and how to handle the post-war world. It was obvious, at this point, that the allies were going to win the war. Now they were discussing, again, how they were going to punish Germany with war reparations. They are also discussing how to divide up the conquered lands back to the countries that the lands were taken from and the occupations for the three countries at the conference and France. However, Stalin made promises to preserve free voting in his occupied lands that he did not keep. The Soviet Union's wartime cooperation later degenerated into the Cold War. The Yalta Conference was significant because it was the root of the Cold War and the United Nations.

Roosevelt's Address to Congress on the Yalta Conference

I come from the Crimea Conference with a firm belief that we have made a good start on the road to a world of peace.

There were two main purposes in this Crimea Conference. The first was to bring defeat to Germany with the greatest possible speed, and the smallest possible loss of Allied men. That purpose is now being carried out in great force. The German Army, and the German people, are feeling the ever-increasing might of our fighting men and of the Allied armies. Every hour gives us added pride in the heroic advance of our troops in Germany—on German soil—toward a meeting with the gallant Red Army.

The second purpose was to continue to build the foundation for an international accord that would bring order and security after the chaos of the war, that would give some assurance of lasting peace among the Nations of the world.

Toward that goal also, a tremendous stride was made.

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=16591

Report of the Yalta Conference

I. The Defeat of Germany


Our combined military plans will be made known only as we execute them, but we believe that

the very close working partnership among the three staffs attained at this Conference will result

in shortening the war. Meetings of the three staffs will be continued in the future whenever the

need arises.



II. The Occupation and Control of Germany



We have agreed on common policies and plans for enforcing the unconditional surrender terms

which we shall impose together on Nazi Germany after German armed resistance has been

finally crushed.


III. Reparation by Germany


We have considered the question of the damage caused by Germany to Allied Nations in this

war and recognised it as just that Germany be obliged to make compensation for this damage in

kind to the greatest extent possible.




Winston S. Churchill

Franklin D. Roosevelt

J. V. Stalin

Source: Report of the Crimea (Yalta) Conference (February 4-11, 1945), Cmd. 6598; reprinted

in Beata Ruhm von Oppen, ed., Documents on Germany under Occupation, 1945-1954. London

and New York: Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 4-6.

http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/Allied%20Policies%203_ENG.pdf

World Organization



1. That a United Nations conference on the proposed world organization should be summoned for Wednesday, 25 April, 1945, and should be held in the United States of America.


Source:
A Decade of American Foriegn Policy : Basic Documents, 1941-49
Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
By the Staff of the Committe and the Department of State.
Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 1950

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp

William Leahy, chief of staff to the commander in chief of the United States, wrote about Yalta in his autobiography, I Was There (1950)

Stalin then had Deputy Foreign Commissar Maisky elaborate on the Russian view of the reparations question.

The total value of the reparations in kind asked by the Soviet was 10 billion dollars, to be spread over the ten-year period.

The German heavy industries should be cut down and 80 per cent removed in a period of two years after the surrender.

Allied control should be established over German industry, and all German industry that could be used in the production of war material should be under international control for a long period.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWyalta.htm

James F. Byrnes, as Secretary of State, attended the Yalta Conference on 4th February, 1945.

In the fall of 1944 the Soviet Union and the Provisional Government of France had entered into a treaty of friendship.It was immediately obvious at Yalta, however, that the treaty and the friendly words exchanged over it by the diplomats had not changed in any degree Marshal Stalin's opinion on the contribution of France to the war.


"I am in favor of France being given a zone," Stalin declared, "but I cannot forget that in this war France opened the gates to the enemy."

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWyalta.htm

Conversation between Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin at Yalta.

Churchill: The peace of the world depends upon the lasting friendship of the three great powers, but His Majesty's Government feel we should be putting ourselves in a false position if we put ourselves in the position of trying to rule the world when our desire is to serve the world and preserve it from a renewal of the frightful horrors which have fallen upon the mass of its inhabitants.

Stalin: I would like to have this document to study because it is difficult on hearing it read to come to any conclusion...I would like to ask Mr. Churchill to name the power which may intend to dominate the world. I am sure Great Britain does not want to dominate the world. So one is removed from suspicion.

Churchill: May I answer?

Stalin: In a minute. When will the great powers accept the provisions that would absolve them from the charge that they intend to dominate the world

Churchill:"I know that under the leaders of the three powers as represented here we may feel safe. But these leaders may not live forever.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWyalta.htm


Anthony Eden wrote about Yalta in his autobiography, Memoirs: The Reckoning (1965)

The President shared a widespread American suspicion of the British Empire as it had once been and, despite his knowledge of world affairs, he was always anxious to make it plain to Stalin that the United States was not 'ganging up' with Britain against Russia. The outcome of this was some confusion in Anglo-American relations which profited the Soviets.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWyalta.htm

DECLARATION OF LIBERATED EUROPE

To foster the conditions in which the liberated people may exercise these rights, the three governments will jointly assist the people in any European liberated state or former Axis state in Europe where, in their judgment conditions require,

(a) to establish conditions of internal peace;(b) to carry out emergency relief measures for the relief of distressed peoples;(c) to form interim governmental authorities broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of Governments responsive to the will of the people; and(d) to facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections.

Source:
A Decade of American Foriegn Policy : Basic Documents, 1941-49
Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
By the Staff of the Committe and the Department of State.
Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 1950

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp

III. DISMEMBERMENT OF GERMANY

It was agreed that Article 12 (a) of the Surrender terms for Germany should be amended to read as follows:

"The United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall possess supreme authority with respect to Germany. In the exercise of such authority they will take such steps, including the complete dismemberment of Germany as they deem requisite for future peace and security."

Source:
A Decade of American Foriegn Policy : Basic Documents, 1941-49
Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
By the Staff of the Committe and the Department of State.
Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 1950

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp