Sensation and Perception🌸🌺🌷

AP Psychology👀👃🏻👂🏻👏🏻👅

Let's talk about vision.

Exploring the eye.


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Vision- Anatomy of the Cow's Eye

Cornea- The transparent part of the eye that covers the front portion of the eye. It's main purpose is to refract or reflect light to provide focus. It protects the eye.

Pupil- Adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

Iris- A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.

Lens- The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.

Retina- Light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.

Optic Nerve- The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

Accommodation- The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

- A commodo dragon changes the shape of its lenses to see predators from afar.

Visual Organization and interpretation

Figure- ground- The organization of the visual field into objects( the figures) that stand out from their surroundings(the ground)

Grouping- The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.

Depth perception- the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.

Binocular cues- depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes.

Monocular cues- depth cues,such as interposition and linear perspective,available to either eye alone.

Phi phenomenon- an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.

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(Above)Visual Cliff Diagram

Visual Cliff- A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

Perceptual Constancy-Perceiving objects as unchanging( having consistent shapes, size, brightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images changes.

Color Constancy- Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.

Perceptual Adaptation- In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.

- Person whom does not need glasses tries on his friend's glasses, and adapts to the inverted world.


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The Ear and Stimulus Input

Outer ear-Channels the sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum, a tight membrane, causing it to vibrate.

Middle Ear- Three tiny bones(the hammer, anvil, and stirrup) pick up the vibrations from the outer ear and transmit them to the cochlea, a snail- shaped tube that is in the inner ear.

Inner Ear- Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. Incoming vibrations cause cochlea's membrane to vibrate, jostling the fluid that fills the tube. This motion causes ripples in the basilar membrane, bending the hair cells lining its surface. Hair cell movement triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve cells. The axons consisted in the cells converge to form the auditory nerve, transmitting neural messages to the auditory cortex in the brain's temporal lobe.

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Cochlear Implant(Above)

Cochlear Implant- A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.

Place theory- In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.

Frequency theory- In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.

Other Senses

Psychologists Ronald Melzack and Biologist Patrick Wall

Illustrated the Gate Control Theory:

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The ''gate'' is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.

- The man wouldn't let that pain in the butt come inside.

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Virtual-reality pain control

The fMRI scans above depict a lowered pain response when the patient is distracted( VR)

Body Position and Movement

Kinesthesia- The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.

Vestibular Sense- The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. (semicircular canals and vestibular sacs contain fluid that moves when your head rotates or tilts.

Sensory Interaction- The principle that one sense ay influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.

Embodied Cognition- In psychological science, the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments.

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