Ten Important Facts about CRmovemen

By: Aman Sharma

Rosa parks

Civil Rights activist whom the U.S called the first lady of civil rights.On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F Blake's order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had taken similar steps in the twentieth century

Martin Luter King Junior

King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Bus Boycott and helped found the (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful struggle against segregation in Albany Georgia in 1962, and organized nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Al that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 march on washington, where he delivered his "I have a dream" speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history

Montgomery bus boycott

A seminal event in the U.S civil rights movement politician and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on public tranzit. When Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional

Jackie Robinson

was an American Baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era. Robinson broke the Baseball Color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. As the first major league team to play a black man since the 1880s, the Dodgers ended Racial segregation that had relegated black players to the Negro Leagues for six decades. The example of Robinson's character and unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation, which then marked many other aspects of American life, and contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement

Sweat vs Painter

The case involved a Black man, Heman Marion Sweatt, who was refused admission to the School of the University of Texas, whose president was Theophelus Painter, on the grounds that the Texas State Constitution prohibited integrated education. At the time, no law school in Texas would admit black students, or, in the language of the time, "Negro" students. The state district court in Travis County, instead of granting the plaintiff a writ of mandamus, continued the case for six months. This allowed the state time to create a law school only for black students, which it established in Huston Texas, rather than in Austin. The 'separate' law school and the college became the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at Texas Southern University (known then as "Texas State University for Negroes"). The trial court decision was affirmed by the Court of Civil Appeals and the Texas Supreme Court denied writt of error on further appeal. Sweatt and the NAACP next went to the federal courts, and the case ultimately reached the U.S. Supreme Court. W.J Durham and Thurgood Marshall presented Sweatt's case. The Supreme Court reversed the lower court decision, saying that the separate school failed to qualify, both because of quantitative differences in facilities and intangible factors, such as its isolation from most of the future lawyers with whom its graduates would interact. The court held that, when considering graduate education, intangibles must be considered as part of "substantive equality." The documentation of the court's decision includes the following differences identified between white and black facilities:

SCLC

is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. MLK Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights movement

Brown vs Board

was a landmark U.S Supreme court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public places for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the plessey vs ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warrens Court unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, De Jure Racial Segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S Congress. This ruling paved the way for interegation and was a major victory of the civil rights movement