The history of medieval Europe.
In medieval times, feudalism was the way of life. A King owned a piece of land and would give pieces the land, fiefs, to nobles and lords. They were now vassals to the King. In return for land, the nobles' knights protected the King. The serfs were the workers on the field. They were provided with a house, money, and food in return for their work. This was all called the manor system. On the manor, the king's castle, fields, serf's homes, and the Church were all located there.
The Catholic Church
Pope Urban II called a holy war to unite Europe and he declares war on the Muslim Turks. The goal was to get Jerusalem and the Hold Lands back. European Christian knights traveled across Europe to Israel and Palestine; also known as the Hold Lands. People went for money, adventure, and for their religion. They figured that if them died, the Pope would send them to Heaven and if you made it back all jail time and debts would be forgiven. All in all, the Byzantine Empire weakens, the Pope's power declines and trade increases between Europe and the Middle East.
The Magna Carta
Henry II"s son, King John, was a very cruel and selfish leader. His nobles finally revolted against him and forced him to sign the Magna Carta. This document guaranteed certain basic political rights. The nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the king's powers. The Magna Carta provides a check on royal power for the people.
The Hundred Years' War
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