Nervous and Immune System
Function of The System
-Stroke which occurs when there is bleeding on the brain or the blow flow to the brain is obstructed
Active Immunity:the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
Passive Immunity:the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
Antigen: a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Antibody:a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
Cause: HIV causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). A syndrome is a group of symptoms that are found together. HIV destroys a type of lymphocyte which is vital for antibody production. Over the years, less active lymphocytes are produced which leads to a fall in the amount of antibodies. Pathogens that would normally be easily controlled by the body in healthy individuals can cause serious consequences and eventually lead to death for patients affected by HIV. The immune system is considerably weakened.
Transmission: HIV is transmitted through body fluids from an infected person to an uninfected one. This can occur through vaginal and anal intercourse as well as oral sex if there are cuts or tears in the vagina, penis, mouth or intestine. It can also be transmitted by hypodermic needles that are shared by intravenous drug abusers. The small amount of blood present on these needles after their use may contain the virus and is enough to infect another person. Another way of transmission is through the placenta from mother to child, or through cuts during childbirth or in milk during breast feeding. Finally there is a risk of transmission in transfused blood or with blood products such as Factor VIII used to treat hemophiliacs.
Social implications: Relatives and friends suffer grief. Families can also suffer from a loss of income as the person infected by HIV can lose their wage if they are unable to work and are refused life insurance. Also, HIV patients may find it hard to find partners, employment and even housing. Finally, AIDS can cause fear in a population.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is an example of an immune deficiency that is present at birth. Children are in constant danger of infections from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This disorder is sometimes called "bubble boy disease." In the 1970s, a boy had to live in a sterile environment inside a plastic bubble. Children with SCID are missing important white blood cells.